Immunoglobulins are specific proteins that are produced by the immune system.
Class E immunoglobulins are released into the blood when various allergens enter it. IG is designed to protect the body from these elements, preventing their destructive effect on healthy cells.
Determination of type E immunoglobulin is an important diagnostic procedure in some pathologies of allergic etiology. In healthy people, the level of this substance is extremely low, so the identification of its overestimated indicators in no case should not be ignored.
What is the role of immunoglobulin in the human body?
Common immunoglobulin E is an indicator of an allergic reaction or illness. With the penetration of the allergen into the body begins to actively produce serotonin and histamine, resulting in the occurrence of:
- swelling of the mucous membranes;
- skin irritation and rash;
- other manifestations of an allergic reaction.
In young children, these symptoms can lead to the development of anaphylactic shock. This is due to the fact that the infantile inferior organism cannot independently and fully cope with the action of stimuli that cause it serious harm.
Immunoglobulin E is a protection against parasitic effects. So, with helminthiasis, a skin rash occurs associated with the effect of toxins excreted by worms. In case of late response to such symptoms, intense pain in the abdominal cavity and severe vomiting appear.
Indications for examination
If allergy symptoms appear, you should contact your allergist. After conducting a detailed survey and physical examination, the doctor will prescribe the necessary examination.
An immunoglobulin test is performed if there are any symptoms of an allergic reaction:
- swelling and flushing of the skin;
- skin irritation, itching and burning;
- prolonged cough;
- itching of the mucous membranes after contact with certain substances;
- unreasonable tearing and rhinitis;
- attacks of bronchial obstruction;
- anaphylactic shock.
In most cases, the analysis of I class E is not assigned independently, but in combination with other samples. This approach helps to maximize the picture of the disease, to find out its causes.
How to take an analysis
Blood donation for immunoglobulins requires compliance with the same rules as for any other biochemical research:
- delivery of biomaterial is carried out in the morning;
- 10 hours before the test, you should refuse to use any food;
- before the study it is necessary to avoid intense physical exertion and stress;
- water can be drunk in unlimited quantities;
- the day before the test should be excluded from the diet fatty foods and alcohol;
- On the eve of the analysis, it is not recommended to perform ultrasound, x-rays, fluorography or CT.
Sometimes an increase in the level of IgE is associated with a violation of the technology of the test lab. In this case, you may need to re-study, which is better to hold in another clinic.
The standards of immunoglobulin E depend on the age of the patient. Given this criterion, they are presented in the table below:
|Age indicator||Minimum rate (KE / L)||Maximum indicator (KE / l)|
|1 - 3 months||0||2|
|3 - 6 months||3||10|
|6 - 14 years old||10||50|
|15 - 20 years||15||60|
|Persons older than 20 years||20||100|
The first determination of the level of immunoglobulin E is possible even during the period of prenatal development of the fetus - within 12 weeks, since during this period the protein index rises. After giving birth, a rapid increase in the concentration of the substance is observed.
The gradual increase in the level of immunoglobulin continues to a certain age. In people of old age, the protein concentration decreases significantly, so the test for IG-E loses its relevance.
Interpretation of indicators
While deciphering the results of the study, the individual characteristics of the patient's body, his age, lifestyle, activity and other factors are taken into account. It is noteworthy that in winter the concentration of the substance is somewhat lower than in summer. Its maximum increase is observed in April-May and August-September.
Reduced levels of immunoglobulin E are more common in residents of northern regions and areas with high humidity. People living in a dry climate and in the south, increased protein index. But, according to studies, a person who previously lived in the southern part, then moved to the north, is subject to a significant increase in the concentration of IG-E.
The total immunoglobulin E is increased in miners, employees of sawmills, workers in the pharmaceutical, perfumery sector, metallurgical plants, and chemical enterprises. In addition, there are still many factors that can cause an increase in the level of this protein, therefore, deciphering the results is a purely individual question.
Causes of increased immunoglobulin E
Increased immunoglobulin levels may have different ranges. The reasons for such a deviation can be found in:
- allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis;
- intestinal nematodosis;
- atopic asthma;
- allergic sinusitis and rhinitis;
- atopic dermatitis;
- food allergies and medications;
- syndrome of migration of helminthic larvae;
- anaphylactic reaction (shock);
- IgE myeloma;
- nodular periarteritis;
- Hypereosinophilia syndrome;
- hyper-IgE syndrome;
- recurrent pyoderma;
- Neumann syndrome.
A significant increase in class E immunoglobulin may also be due to a condition such as "graft versus host disease".
What to do if you deviate from the norm?
The increased concentration of immunoglobulin E indicates the presence of hypersensitivity of the human body to certain stimuli - pollen, animal hair, food, dust, chemical elements.
To eliminate an allergic reaction, it is necessary to find out exactly what caused it. For this additional research is conducted - allergy test. Only after receiving the results of such a test, the doctor may prescribe the necessary therapy to the patient:
- In case of parasitic invasion, the course of anthelmintic drugs is prescribed.
- When food allergies from the diet excluded all foods that provoke a sharp reaction of the body.
- For dermatitis, special external ointments, creams and gels are prescribed (A-Derma, Dermalex, Atoderm, Excipial). To block the synthesis of histamines, special groups of drugs are used - antihistamines: Suprastin, Fenkarol, Erius, Eden, Loratadin, etc.
Sorbents are accepted for the speedy binding and elimination of toxins from the body, and enzymes are used to normalize digestion.
In addition to treatment, it is also necessary to conduct a course of activities aimed at preventing the development of allergies in the future. Prophylactic procedures depend on what exactly caused a sharp jump in the level of immunoglobulin E in the patient's body.
Difficulties with treatment may occur in children under six months of age. Their immune system is still very weak, so the concentration of immunoglobulin E is difficult to determine - it is extremely low.
To prevent an increase in the level of immunoglobulin E, it is necessary:
- regularly undergo examination by the attending physician;
- wear a protective mask during periods of active flowering of plants whose pollen is a powerful allergen;
- carefully monitor the health of the child and determine whether he has a predisposition to allergic diseases;
- timely identify and treat parasitic (in particular, helminthic) pathologies.
It is extremely important to avoid close contact with allergic substances. Do not sniff the flowers, the pollen of which irritates the mucous membranes and skin, or stroking animals whose wool provokes similar reactions. Even if you really want, to do this is absolutely not recommended for the safety of their own health.
Another preventive measure is the regular testing of an immunoglobulin E. Blood should be donated to it once every six months.
Which doctor to contact?
The analysis of immunoglobulin E class is prescribed by an allergist. Decoding the results should be carried out exclusively by a specialist, because the patient will not be able to independently understand the situation and make an accurate diagnosis.
If the cause of the increase in protein was worms invasion, the patient may be referred for additional consultation with a parasitologist.