Sore throat and dry cough: causes and treatment in an adult

Sore throat is a symptom of many diseases, which in parallel may be accompanied by other clinical manifestations.

Often it occurs in conjunction with cough, discomfort, partial or complete loss of voice (dysphonia and aphonia). Although sometimes the tickle can appear in a perfectly healthy person. The reason for this condition may be smoking, eating hot food or drinks and other non-dangerous factors.

But sometimes people with disabilities in the work of the respiratory system complain that they are sore in their throats. It is sometimes extremely difficult to understand the situation on your own, so when this symptom occurs, you should contact an ENT doctor.

Why do you have a sore throat and cough?

According to doctors, in 95% of cases, the sore throat in an adult is associated with respiratory diseases:

  • ARVI and flu;
  • pharyngitis;
  • laryngitis;
  • tonsillitis;
  • and other pathologies of infectious etiology.

But the throat can not only mend these reasons. Sometimes this symptom appears on the background:

  • smoking;
  • taking certain medications;
  • increased load on the vocal cords.

Singers, teachers and lecturers, lecturers, call center operators and other people whose professional activities are closely connected with an increased load on the speech apparatus often suffer from imbalance. But, in addition, this symptom occurs in certain pathologies that are not associated with the vocal cords. A throat can sore in a person suffering from:

  • pulmonary tuberculosis;
  • chronic rhinitis;
  • polypous sinusitis;
  • adenoiditis;
  • tumor processes in the bronchi;
  • pharyngeal neurosis;
  • allergies;
  • syphilis;
  • some endocrine disorders;
  • heart failure (the so-called "heart cough").

All these diseases are accompanied by coughing and dry mucous membranes. Because of this, an unpleasant, tickling sensation in the throat can also appear.

Tickling in the throat is observed with the curvature of the nasal septum and other pathologies, accompanied by a violation of nasal breathing. It is also sometimes manifested in certain diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, in particular GERD.

Symptoms

Symptoms that accompany a sore throat for a long time, are directly dependent on the reason for its occurrence. If the appearance of such a deviation is associated with infectious processes, then the patient will be disturbed:

  • increased body temperature;
  • myalgia;
  • chills;
  • general weakness;
  • arthralgia.

If you do not start treatment in time, a slight sore throat can develop into an intense inflammatory process, including purulent.

Laryngitis

Laryngitis is an inflammation of the vocal cords, which, in addition to sore throat, is accompanied by:

  • hoarseness or complete loss of voice;
  • increased body temperature;
  • barking cough;
  • suffocation;
  • severe pain and burning sensation in the throat.

In most cases, laryngitis becomes a consequence of ARVI or flu.

Pharyngitis

Inflammation of the back wall of the larynx is called pharyngitis. Pathology is accompanied by subfebrile condition, but can occur without temperature. Hyperemia, puffiness and dryness of the mucous membrane and annoying cough accompany perching in the throat.

Bronchitis

At the very beginning of the development of inflammation in the bronchi, a dry cough appears, then a large amount of sputum is noted. If the pathology is infectious, then as it progresses, the nasopharynx will be involved in the pathological process.

Allergy

In addition to sore throat and dry mucous membranes, allergies are accompanied by:

  • lacrimation;
  • rhinitis;
  • dry cough;
  • itching and burning of the nasal mucosa;
  • sneezing

To make sure that cough and tickling do have an allergic etiology, you need to pay attention to the time of their occurrence. If this happened after contact with a pet, pollen, drugs, then this is proof that the patient suffers from a hypersensitivity reaction, and not from a respiratory disease.

Diabetes

Diabetic throat irritation occurs predominantly at night. That is why such patients are forced to put a glass with water next to them, in case of need, to eliminate an attack of night dry cough.

GERD and gastric pathologies

Patients with GERD and some gastric diseases suffer from epigastric pain, nausea, flatulence.

Vomiting is sometimes mixed with these symptoms. Pershenia and cough are associated with the reflux of gastric contents back into the esophagus, which causes irritation of its mucous membranes.

Thyroid disease

Basedow's disease, nodular goiter and thyroid cancer are diseases that cause pressure of an enlarged endocrine organ or tumor located in it on the laryngeal tissue.

The result is tickling, dry cough, hoarseness and difficulty in swallowing.

Neurological disorders

If the problem consists in disturbing the activity of the nervous system, the tickling and coughing will be accompanied by a feeling of a foreign object or a coma in the throat.

What to do and how to treat sore throat?

Treatment of prolonged sore throat in adults will be effective only if the exact cause of its occurrence has been established. To do this, initially refer to the otolaryngologist.

If this symptom appears on the background of ARVI or flu, then antiviral drugs and immunostimulants are used to eliminate it. In case of allergic etiology of tickling, it is important to exclude contact with the allergen, and only then begin therapy with the use of antihistamines.

Drug treatment

Drug therapy for severe sore throat can be based on the use of:

  1. Geksoral - spray to irrigate the throat. The procedure is carried out up to 3 times per day.
  2. Faringosept. Tablets for resorption is recommended to use 2 to 5 times a day before meals.
  3. Strepsils - lollipops, which must be absorbed from 1 to 5 per day.
  4. Miramistina - spray for throat treatment. To do 3 - 4 injections of the drug up to 4 times per day.
  5. Chlorhexidine is an antiseptic spray and solution that needs to be used to treat sore throat 3 times a day after meals.
  6. Stopangina - spray, which preferably should be used after a meal.
  7. Gramicidin - tablets, which should be absorbed by 2 pcs. twice a day.
  8. Avelox - tablets that need to be taken 1 pc. per day for 5-14 days.

If necessary, doctors resort to the appointment of antibiotics:

  1. Cephalosporins - Cefazolin, Ceftriaxone. This group of antimicrobial drugs has a powerful effect, but is mainly used when penicillins are ineffective.
  2. Macrolides - Azithromycin, Azitrox, Sumamed, etc. Such drugs do not have a pronounced toxic effect on the body, so they can even be used to treat children.
  3. Fluoroquinolones (Ofloxacin, Moxifloxacin) are powerful antibiotics that can kill most pathogens.

You can apply home therapy methods - inhalations, rinses, compresses, etc.

Treatment of folk remedies

The use of alternative medicine recipes is recommended to discuss with a doctor first. It is important to build on the root causes of tickling and coughing, otherwise self-medication can only harm. Below are the most effective ways to get rid of unpleasant symptoms with the help of folk remedies.

Gargles

The main rule of gargling is the spitting of the liquid - it is strongly not recommended to swallow it. For this purpose, apply:

  1. Saline solution. In 1 liter of hot water you need to dissolve 10 g of sea salt. Gargle every 4 hours. Such procedures help to eliminate the inflammatory process.
  2. To soften the throat tissues, soda solution is used, for the preparation of which it is necessary to dissolve 1 tsp in 300 ml of warm water. soda Gargle should be 5 - 6 times a day.
  3. Infusion of chamomile flowers. 1 tbsp. l raw materials pour 300 ml boiling water, insist 10 minutes and strain. Ready infusion used for rinsing 4 times a day.
  4. Sage decoction. 1 tsp dry grass pour a glass of boiling water, boil for 7 minutes, cool and bring to the original volume. Procedures should be carried out one hour before each meal.
  5. 1 spoonful of fresh calendula blossoms pour a glass of cold water and leave to infuse overnight. In the morning, filter and gargle every 4 hours.
  6. Linden inflorescences in the amount of 1 tsp. brew a glass of boiling water and insist under the lid for 10 minutes. Gargle to moisten his mucous every time she starts to dry.
  7. Insist 1 tsp. herbs peppermint in a glass of boiling water to cool, then strain. Filter and apply the infusion to rinse with a burning sensation in the throat and cough.
  8. A tablespoon of leaves and crushed raspberry branches pour 400 ml boiling water and cook over low heat for 10 minutes. Insist under the lid to cool and cool. This is an excellent antibacterial agent that needs to gargle every 2 hours.
  9. Ginger root grate and squeeze the juice. Dilute it with water in a ratio of 1: 3, respectively. Rinse the throat with a solution, but you can also take it inside by 1 tsp. Ginger has antiviral, antibacterial and immunostimulating properties.
  10. Alkaline mineral waters are suitable for drinking and gargling. But first you need to leave the bottle open for 1 hour so that all the CO2 bubbles come out.

Gargling with broths and infusions of eucalyptus, fir, aloe, oak bark, propolis solution, etc. is also effective.

Inhalation

For dryness and a sore throat, as well as coughing, inhalation is an excellent therapeutic tool:

  1. A solution of soda with salt. This medicine helps to moisturize and soften the mucous membranes, and expectoration of sputum. In 1 liter of water with a temperature of 42 degrees should be dissolved 2 tbsp. l soda and 1 tsp. salt. Cover with a towel and inhale the vapors for 7 minutes.
  2. Mineral alkaline water. Heat a little water in the water bath (up to 40 degrees), inhale alternately for 5 minutes through each nasal passage.
  3. Saline or mineral water. Such liquids can be poured into the nebulizer container (no more than 4 ml), and breathe through a mask or mouthpiece. Adults - 7 minutes, children - 3 - 4 minutes.

Steam inhalation can also be done with the decoction of medicinal plants - chamomile, calendula, eucalyptus, St. John's wort, immortelle, etc. 1 tsp. leaves of the selected plant (flowers are taken for chamomile or calendula inhalations) brew 250 ml of boiling water, simmer on low heat for 5 minutes. Cool to 40 degrees, strain and steam inhalation for 5 minutes.

What else to do at home?

When you sore throat and cough, you should:

  • refuse spicy and salty foods;
  • exclude smoking;
  • talk less so as not to put additional strain on the vocal cords;
  • consume more liquid, especially fortified: home juices, fruit drinks, dried fruit compotes, etc.

When allergic etiology of cough and tickling is necessary:

  • get an air ionizer;
  • regularly carry out wet cleaning in the house;
  • minimize the number of carpets, soft toys and other items that accumulate dust;
  • air daily living quarters - in the morning and in the evening, before going to bed;
  • change clothes after walking on the street;
  • after returning from the street, nose and throat need to rinse with a weak solution of sea salt.

If coughing and tickling are a symptom of GERD, doctors recommend:

  • normalize body weight;
  • avoid overeating;
  • eliminate spicy and fatty foods;
  • give up cigarettes and alcohol;
  • Do not go to bed for half an hour after eating.

Such measures will help to avoid an increased load on the stomach, which is the main provocateur of returning its contents into the esophagus, which is characteristic of GERD.

Watch the video: Chronic Cough Treatment for Children - Mindy Ross, MD. UCLA Mattel Children's Hospital (December 2019).

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