Tracheitis is an inflammation of the tracheal mucosa. It is manifested by swelling, swelling, excessive mucus production, redness of the tracheal mucosa, as a result of which it becomes extremely sensitive to various irritating factors (for example, sputum, sharply inhaled air), which leads to attacks of agonizing cough.
Faced with the diagnosis of "tracheitis" can each person, regardless of age, gender and type of activity. But to worry about this is not necessary, since the disease is quickly treatable.
However, people often have questions about what is tracheitis, the symptoms in adults are different from the signs of the disease in children, how to deal with tracheitis at home. This article will help to answer all relevant questions.
Why does tracheitis arise, and what is it? Tracheitis is a disease in which the trachea inflames. A trachea is a tube made up of open, cartilaginous rings connected by muscles and ligaments. Inside this tube is covered with mucous membrane, with the defeat of which tracheitis develops. This disease can be of 3 types depending on the pathogen. If the causative agent is a virus or microbes, one can speak of viral or bacterial tracheitis, respectively. In addition, the disease may be allergic in nature.
Acute tracheitis almost never proceeds on its own, it usually occurs in combination with other respiratory diseases, such as laryngitis, pharyngitis, rhinitis, bronchitis.
Causes of acute tracheitis:
- SARS, flu and other viral infections of the respiratory tract;
- bacterial infections of the respiratory tract (streptococcus, staphylococcus, hemophilic infection and others);
- dry, cold or polluted air.
Chronic tracheitis is a complication of the acute form of the disease. If you do not treat the disease and do not eliminate the effects of harmful factors, the tracheitis is likely to become chronic and will flow into the acute phase with the slightest negative impact.
Predisposing factors for chronic tracheitis include:
- breathing in dry or cold air;
- inhalation of gases, dust and vapors of chemicals that irritate the tracheal mucosa;
- alcohol abuse;
- chronic lung or heart disease;
- inflammatory processes in the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, pharynx.
Allergic tracheitis is an allergic reaction that develops in response to the inhalation of various allergens: household, industrial or library dust, plant pollen, animal hair microparticles, chemical compounds contained in the air of industrial premises of the chemical, pharmaceutical and perfume industries.
In the case of tracheitis, the main symptom in adults is a strong paroxysmal cough. First dry, then with a small amount of sputum. The cough is most intense at night and early in the morning, aggravated by laughter, crying, loud conversation, and sharp inhalation of air, especially cold air.
The following features can be noted:
- bouts of coughing are inconstant and strong only in the morning. The rest of the time a person needs to take a deep breath in order to provoke spasmodic reactions;
- cough is accompanied by sputum production, as well as severe pain in the throat and behind the sternum, which remain after the cessation of the attack.
With the involvement of the bronchi with the development of tracheobronchitis, the condition of the patients becomes more severe (high body temperature, cough becomes constant and more painful, chest pain increases).
Treatment of tracheitis in adults
The disease is not considered a threat to life, so it can be treated on an outpatient basis. But the treatment of tracheitis at home is aimed at complying with all the prescriptions and recommendations of the doctor. He must necessarily inform that the patient needs bed rest for 5-10 days, depending on the severity of the disease.
No less important rule is that the treatment of tracheitis at home should be carried out in a constantly ventilated room. Every day you need to perform a wet cleaning of the room where the patient is, as the humidity of the air affects the nature of the cough.
The main treatment for tracheitis in adults is to prevent the spread of infection to the lower respiratory tract. Otherwise, it can lead to acute bronchitis or pneumonia. How to treat tracheitis in an adult?
For treatment apply:
- sulfa drugs;
- antiviral, anti-inflammatory drugs.
The goals of treatment:
- identification and elimination of the etiological factor - allergen, viruses, bacteria;
- relief of symptoms of the disease;
- preventing the development of complications or the transition to the chronic form.
Also, inhalations, massages and exercise therapy, and herbal treatments loved by many to help relieve tracheitis symptoms, are used as treatments.
The mapping of treatment, the duration of therapy, the selection of drugs and their dosages in each case is determined strictly individually and depends on the patient's age, the cause and form of the disease, the severity of symptoms, and the possible presence of concomitant pathologies that aggravate the course of tracheitis.
The prognosis of treatment is almost always characterized as favorable. The duration of the acute form of the disease under consideration is 10-14 days, if the course is without complications. Chronic form is not predictable by timing. But with proper treatment and normal immunity, recovery takes about 30 days.
Fight against cough
With a dry, unproductive cough "like a barrel," the therapist may prescribe medications that suppress the cough center. Thanks to them, irritation is eliminated, which allows the patient to spend a relatively quiet night. Such means include Stoptussin, Sinekod, Falimint.
When the sputum begins to depart, the doctor prescribes expectorant drugs - Lasolvan, Gedelix, Bronchipret. Moreover, if night coughing attacks continue to torment the patient, suppressing cough medicines are also taken at night.
Therapies prescribed by the doctor can be combined with traditional methods of treating tracheitis:
- Steam inhalations also help to improve sputum secretion - with decoctions of the herbs listed above, hot potatoes, mineral water. However, it should be remembered that at elevated temperatures, thermal procedures are contraindicated.
- To steam up feet, with application of a hot bath. To do this, type the most hot water in any container convenient for you, but do not gently burn the skin and add two or three tablespoons of mustard. In total, this procedure may take you about half an hour. Do not forget to constantly add hot water, as the previous one cools.
- When tracheitis, traditional medicine suggests using compresses. At night, put a woolen cloth soaked in vinegar with olive oil or camphor on your chest or grated horseradish and put it on the back of your neck.
- Mitigation of inflammatory changes in the throat with butter. To prepare the medicine, add a spoonful of butter to a glass of warm tea. For taste add ginger powder, 2 spoons of sugar. After stirring the drink to drink in large sips. Ginger relieves cough, butter eliminates inflammation. It is possible to add means to warm milk.
It should be remembered that folk remedies will not help you to cure tracheitis, they can alleviate the symptoms of the disease. For complete recovery should seek the help of a doctor. According to reviews, adequate and timely treatment of tracheitis guarantees recovery in 1-2 weeks.
It will help to avoid exacerbation of the disease compliance with the following rules:
- hardening of the body;
- to give up smoking;
- change of employment, if it is harmful production;
- maximum restriction of contact with the allergen, which develops an allergic reaction;
- avoid hypothermia and stay in rooms with large crowds in the autumn-winter period.
In general, for the prevention of tracheitis, it is recommended to strengthen the immune system, especially for those prone to diseases of the upper respiratory tract.