Concussion of the brain is one of the mildest forms of traumatic brain injury, as a result of which the brain vessels are damaged. All disorders of brain activity are dangerous and require increased attention and treatment.
Concussion occurs only with aggressive mechanical effects on the head - for example, this can happen when a person falls and hitting his head on the floor. Doctors still can not give a precise definition of the mechanism for the development of symptoms of concussion of the brain, because even during computed tomography, doctors do not see any pathological changes in the tissues and cortex of the organ.
It is important to remember that treating concussion is not recommended at home. First of all, it is necessary to contact a specialist in a medical institution and only after reliable diagnosis of the lesions and their severity, it is possible, in consultation with the doctor, to use the methods of treatment at home.
What it is?
Concussion is damage to the bones of the skull or soft tissues, such as brain tissue, blood vessels, nerves, and meninges. A person may have an accident in which he can hit his head on a hard surface, this just entails such a phenomenon as a concussion. At the same time there are some violations of the brain that do not lead to irreversible consequences.
As already mentioned, a concussion can be obtained with a fall, a blow to the head or neck, a sharp slowing of the movement of the head in such situations:
- at home;
- in production;
- in the children's team;
- at occupations in sports sections;
- in road accidents;
- in domestic conflicts with assault;
- in military conflicts;
- with barotrauma;
- with injuries with rotation (rotation) of the head.
As a result of a head injury, the brain changes its location for a short time and almost immediately returns to it. In this case, the mechanism of inertia and the peculiarities of fixation of the brain structures in the skull come into effect - not keeping up with the sudden movement, a part of the nerve processes can stretch and lose connection with other cells.
The pressure changes in different parts of the skull, the blood supply can be temporarily interrupted, and hence the power of the nerve cells. An important fact with concussion is that all changes are reversible. There are no breaks, hemorrhages, no edema.
The most characteristic signs of a concussion are:
- confusion, inhibition;
- headache, dizziness, ringing in the ears;
- incoherent inhibited speech;
- nausea or vomiting;
- lack of coordination of movements;
- diplopia (double vision);
- inability to concentrate attention;
- light and phytophase;
- memory loss.
Concussion has three degrees of severity, from the lightest first to severe third. On what symptoms of brain concussion occur most frequently, we consider next.
Mild brain concussion
In the case of mild concussion in an adult, the following symptoms occur:
- severe contusion of the head or neck (the blow "detonates" from the cervical vertebrae in the head);
- short-term - a few seconds - loss of consciousness, often concussions and without loss of consciousness;
- effect of "spark from the eyes";
- dizziness, aggravated by turning the head and stooping;
- effect of "old film strip" before the eyes.
Symptoms of brain concussion
Immediately after the injury, the cerebral brain concussion symptoms are noted:
- Nausea and gag reflex in the case when it is not known about what happened to the person and he is unconscious.
- One of the most important symptoms is a loss of consciousness. The time of loss of consciousness can be long or, conversely, short.
- Headache and impaired coordination testifies to a brain injury, and the person is also dizzy.
- With a concussion, pupils of different shapes are possible.
- The person wants to sleep or, on the contrary, is hyperactive.
- Direct confirmation of a concussion - seizures.
- If the victim came to his senses, he may experience discomfort in bright light or loud sound.
- When talking with a person he may experience confusion. He may not even remember what happened before the accident.
- Sometimes it may not be connected.
During the first days after injury, a person may experience the following signs of a brain concussion:
- sleep disturbance;
- violation of orientation in time and space;
- pallor of the skin;
- lack of appetite;
- inability to focus;
- feeling of instability in the legs;
- flushing of the face;
- noise in ears.
It must be remembered that the patient will not always find all the symptoms characteristic of brain concussion - it all depends on the severity of the damage and the general condition of the human body. That is why an experienced specialist should determine the severity of brain injury.
What to do with concussion at home
Before the arrival of the doctors, first aid to the victim at home should consist in immobilization and ensuring complete rest. Under the head you can put something soft, apply a cold compress or ice to your head.
If the concussion continues to be in an unconscious state, the so-called saving position is preferable:
- on the right side,
- head thrown back, face turned to the ground,
- the left arm and leg are bent at a right angle at the elbow and knee joints (fractures of the limbs and the spine should be excluded first).
This position, ensuring the free passage of air into the lungs and the unobstructed flow of fluid from the mouth to the outside, prevents respiratory failure due to sticking of the tongue, leaking into the respiratory tract of saliva, blood, and vomit. If there are bleeding wounds on the head, bandage.
For the treatment of concussion of the victim must be hospitalized. Bed rest for such patients is at least 12 days. During this time, the patient is prohibited from any intellectual and psycho-emotional stress (reading, watching TV, listening to music, etc.).
Degrees of severity
The division of concussion of the brain on the severity is rather arbitrary - the main criterion for this is the period of time that the victim spends without consciousness:
- Grade 1 - mild concussion, in which the loss of consciousness lasts up to 5 minutes or is absent. The general condition of the person is satisfactory, neurological symptoms (impaired movement, speech, sensory organs) are practically absent.
- 2 degree - the consciousness can be absent till 15 minutes. The general condition is moderate, there is vomiting, nausea, neurological symptoms.
- Grade 3 - tissue damage expressed by volume or depth, consciousness absent for more than 15 minutes (sometimes a person does not regain consciousness until 6 o'clock from the moment of injury), the general condition is severe, with severe impaired function of all organs.
It must be remembered that any victim who suffered a head injury should be examined by a doctor — even with a seemingly insignificant injury, an intracranial hematoma may develop, the symptoms of which will progress after some time (“light gap”) and steadily increase. With a concussion of the brain, almost all the symptoms disappear under the influence of the treatment - it takes time.
In the case of adequate treatment and compliance by the patient with the recommendations of the doctors after a concussion of the brain, in most cases there is a full recovery and restoration of working capacity. However, some patients may experience certain complications.
- The most severe consequence of concussion is considered post-commotion syndrome, which develops after a certain period of time (days, weeks, months) after TBI and torments a person all his life with constant bouts of intense headache, dizziness, nervousness, insomnia.
- Irritability, psychoemotional instability, hyperexcitability, aggression, but quick wastefulness.
- Convulsive syndrome, resembling epilepsy, depriving the right to drive a car and admission to certain professions.
- Severe vegetative-vascular disorders, manifested by irregular blood pressure, dizziness and headache, flushing, sweating and fatigue.
- Hypersensitivity to alcoholic beverages.
- Depressive states, neuroses, fears and phobias, sleep disturbance.
A timely, high-quality treatment will help minimize the effects of a concussion.
Treatment of concussion
Like any injury and brain disease, concussion should be treated under the supervision of a neurologist, a traumatologist, a surgeon who controls any signs and progression of the disease. Treatment involves mandatory bed rest - 2-3 weeks for an adult, 3-4 weeks for a child at least.
It often happens that the patient after a concussion of the brain has a sharp sensitivity to bright light, loud sounds. It is necessary to isolate it from this in order not to aggravate the symptoms.
In the hospital, the patient is mainly for the purpose of monitoring him, where he is given prophylactic and symptomatic treatment:
- Analgesics (baralgin, sedalgin, ketorol).
- Soothing agents (tinctures of valerian and motherwort, tranquilizers - Relanium, phenazepam, etc.).
- With vertigo, Bellaspon, Bellatamininal, Cinnarizine are prescribed.
- Magnesium sulphate helps well to relieve general tension, and diuretics help prevent brain edema.
- It is advisable to use vascular preparations (trental, cavinton), nootropes (nootropil, piracetam) and vitamins of group B.
In addition to symptomatic treatment, therapy is usually prescribed to restore impaired brain function and prevent complications. The appointment of such therapy is possible no earlier than 5-7 days after injury.
Patients are advised to take nootropic (Nootropil, Piracetam) and vasotropic (Cavinton, Theonikol) drugs. They have a beneficial effect on cerebral circulation and improve brain activity. Their admission is shown for several months after discharge from the hospital.
The entire period of rehabilitation, which lasts depending on the severity of conditions from 2 to 5 weeks, the victim must follow all the recommendations of the doctor and strictly follow bed rest. It is also strictly prohibited any physical and mental stress. During the year, it is necessary to observe a neurologist to prevent complications.
Remember, after suffering a concussion, even in a mild form, various complications can arise in the form of post-traumatic syndrome, and in people who have alcohol abuse epilepsy. To avoid these troubles, should be observed during a year at the doctor.