Caries is a dental disease that is characterized by the destruction of the hard tissues of the tooth (enamel and dentin). At the initial stage, the disease is asymptomatic, but over time a cavity forms in the dental tissues. This causes severe discomfort, pain, and further leads to tooth loss.
Cervical caries (root) caries is the most dangerous type of caries that destroys a tooth at its very foundation. It is localized in the neck of the tooth (the gum zone). This disease progresses rapidly, affects the root canals and can lead to a fracture of the dental crown.
In this regard, it is necessary to treat cervical caries immediately. Timely therapy will prevent tooth loss and the development of serious diseases such as pulpitis, gingivitis, periodontitis.
Causes of cervical caries
The main cause of the disease is plaque, which contains the harmful bacteria Streptococcus mutans. Due to poor brushing of teeth, it quickly accumulates on the enamel and in the gum pockets. In the process of vital activity, bacteria secrete organic acids that flush calcium from enamel. As a result - the formation of a carious cavity.
Among the main factors contributing to the development of cervical caries are:
- Neglecting twice cleaning, as well as insufficient removal of soft plaque - brushing should be cleaning - from the gums up, and not rubbing, like many people brush their teeth.
- Anatomical features of enamel near the gums. On the root areas of the teeth, the enamel is very thin, so it is strongly exposed to the destructive effects of cariogenic organisms.
- Genetic predisposition to exfoliating the gums causes the formation of "gum pockets" where food debris accumulates over time. As a result, there are carious cavities and caries develops under the gum.
- Violation of the secretion of the salivary glands. Saliva in the human body performs a protective function. Reducing the amount of saliva produced leads to a decrease in the level of protection of the teeth from the harmful effects of bacteria that live in the oral cavity.
- Refusal of preventive visits to the dentist. Occasionally, most people need professional hygiene procedures — removal of hard tartar, in which, like in soft plaque, cariogenic microorganisms inhabit.
- Radical caries may indicate endocrine dysfunction (development of diabetes mellitus or disruption of the thyroid gland).
Cervical caries is the most dangerous among all types of this disease, because it very quickly damages the roots and channels of the tooth. In patients older than 60 years, it is the damage to the neck of the tooth that becomes the main cause of its loss.
The main symptoms of cervical caries are exactly the same as in the case of other types of caries. At the early stage of development of the cervical caries on the tooth enamel, a small bright spot appears, which eventually darkens, becomes deeper, affects the dentin and eventually leads to the complete destruction of the tooth with no appropriate treatment.
Stages of development of cervical caries:
- Caries that looks like a spot. This stage is expressed by the appearance of a small white speck, which can remain unchanged for a long time.
- Caries, violating the surface of the tooth. The upper part of the tooth is affected - enamel, the person feels cold and hot.
- Caries middle stage. Tooth enamel and dentin suffer, there appears a vividly manifested sensitivity to temperature drops. The pain disappears quickly enough.
- Caries deep stage. For this stage of the disease is characterized by a deep violation of the internal of the tooth, which is close to the nerves, the pain is powerful and unbearable, the irritation is cold and hot.
A feature of the cervical caries is that if it is started, the doctor will have to remove the dental nerve and fill the canals of the tooth. This is due to the fact that the tooth neck is in close proximity to the dental canals, and if caries is not treated in time, it will quickly penetrate deep into the tooth.
Cervical caries: photo before and after
What this type of caries looks like, we offer to view detailed photos of the tooth.
Cervical caries is well diagnosed, as the affected areas are visible to the naked eye. The patient himself, looking in the mirror, can easily find himself in white chalk-like areas at the base of the tooth.
In some cases, dentists use special solutions for accurate diagnosis and ask the patient to rinse their mouth. The essence of the technique lies in the inability of dyes to penetrate through healthy enamel, at the same time in places of demineralization, the pigment easily penetrates through the porous, damaged surface into the dentin. The basic substance of the tooth easily and quickly takes a given color and holds it for several days.
How to treat cervical caries
Depending on the severity and severity of symptoms of cervical caries, a treatment regimen is determined. When caries looks more like white chalky spots, and the upper layer of the enamel is not damaged, usually conservative treatment is carried out, namely remineralization. With remineralization, the calcium-free tooth enamel is saturated with this mineral with the help of special preparations, which also contain other minerals. This procedure strengthens the enamel and prevents caries from developing further.
When a cavity is formed, the process of treatment of cervical caries should include the following main steps: local anesthesia, removal of dental plaque, preparation of the defect and cavity treatment, application of medical and insulating spacers (in the treatment of medium and deep caries), production of a light polymerization seal, grinding and polishing the seal.
The best way to prevent the recurrence of cervical caries is to brush your teeth regularly, trying to thoroughly clean them all the way to the neck. In addition, regularly visit the dentist, because if caries is detected at the initial stage, it will be quite possible to do without remineralization.
Once every 6-12 months, it is recommended to do professional teeth cleaning in order to remove deposits that contain cariogenic microorganisms.