Very often, on the basis of indicators of the level of glucose in the blood, they determine the state of various systems and organs of the human body. Normally, sugar should not exceed 8.8-9.9 mmol per 1 liter.
If his blood level rises, the tubules of the kidneys lose their ability to normally absorb an increased amount of glucose into the blood from the urine. It is because of this that glucose appears in the urine — this process is called glucosuria.
Causes of sugar in the urine can be very diverse. Thus, glucosuria may appear due to insulin deficiency, due to a decrease in renal (or hepatic) functions, impaired hormonal regulation of carbohydrate metabolism, and also due to excessive consumption of large amounts of carbohydrates.
Preparation for the analysis
To collect urine for daily analysis you need to prepare morally and physically. Indicators may be distorted due to stress and overload, both emotional and physical. All this as far as possible should be avoided
When collecting daily urine, you need to pay attention to your diet: you should exclude from the diet citrus fruits (oranges, grapefruits), buckwheat porridge, beets, because these products change the color of urine. And, naturally, when collecting urine for glucose, you cannot eat sweets.
Norm sugar in urine
In the normal state of health of the body, the content of glucose in the urine is very low, its performance ranges from 0.06 to 0.083 Mmol per liter. Such a sugar content in the urine is not detected when conducting laboratory research methods (biochemical analysis of urine, urinalysis).
One of the reasons for the appearance of sugar in the urine is diabetes. In this case, the sugar is detected in the patient's urine, when the indicator of glucose in the blood is significantly reduced. Most often, this picture is observed in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. In this process, sugar can be absorbed into the blood through the renal tubules only when it is phosphated by the enzyme hexokinase.
Signs of diabetes are: decreased or increased body weight, increased appetite, frequent urination (polyuria), thirst, as well as reduced resistance to infections, slow healing of wounds, itching of the external genitalia, reduced vision and some others.
Causes of sugar in the urine
What does it mean? Sugar in the urine may appear due to various diseases. The main causes of this phenomenon are an increased concentration of glucose in the blood, an impaired filtration mechanism by the kidneys, or a delay in the reabsorption of glucose in the tubules.
The reasons for the increase in glucose (sugar) in the urine may be the following circumstances:
- the first disease that has the highest percentage of diagnostics is diabetes mellitus (both of the first and second type),
- Itsenko - Cushing's disease,
- hereditary tubulopathy (de Toni-Debreux-Fanconi syndrome),
- renal failure
Physiological causes of increased blood glucose:
- Alimentary glucosuria - develops as a result of a short-term increase in blood glucose levels above the threshold for the kidney after eating high-carbohydrate foods.
- Emotional glucosuria - blood sugar levels can rise dramatically due to stress.
- During pregnancy - physiological glucosuria in pregnant women
Based on a significant list of causes that can trigger this pathology, we can conclude that the appearance of sugar in the urine is an indicator of the pathological changes that affected the human body and an incentive factor that should force the patient to seek help from a doctor.
Glucose levels can fluctuate in both men and women. It depends on age and lifestyle, diet and other factors. If the sugar has risen once, do not panic, it is better to retake tests.
With a high content of sugar in the urine, the following symptoms occur:
- strong thirst;
- constant desire to sleep;
- irritation and itching in the genital area;
- feeling tired;
- unexpected loss of body weight;
- frequent urination;
- dry skin.
If there is at least one of these symptoms, you should consult a doctor to be examined and make a diagnosis.