As a rule, people are silent about diseases that affect the genitals and anus. For some reason, most are ashamed of such ailments. They turn to doctors already in very difficult and neglected situations, or do not resort to their services at all. There was an exception and such a problem as the blood from the anus during a bowel movement.
At the same time, it is worth knowing that anal bleeding can manifest serious diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, which pose a threat to the health and sometimes the life of the patient. Therefore, to disregard such a formidable symptom can not be neither the patient nor the doctor, to prevent further development of the disease and its complications.
If we turn to statistics, the most often bleeding from the anus is observed in women and men with hemorrhoids. In this disease, blood is secreted from the anus, usually without pain, during or at the end of the act of defecation, often drip, sometimes - jet, and in advanced cases - in the form of "spray". The color is scarlet.
Causes of bleeding from the anus
Why is the blood from the anus, and what to do in this case? In adults, this symptom is primarily associated with damage to the mucous membrane of the rectum and colon.Rectal bleeding can not be correlated with the petty banality, which you can give up. In case of its occurrence with or after a bowel movement, accompanied by pain or without it, it is imperative to contact the proctologist in order to conduct adequate treatment with timely diagnosis.
Common causes of blood from the anus in women and men:
- The leader of this symptom is hemorrhoids. Usually, blood appears after defecation. The color of blood is scarlet, blood is not mixed with feces.
- Colitis. In this disease, inflammation and ulceration occur in any part of the gastrointestinal tract, most often in the large intestine.
- Anal fissure. The blood from the rectum is in small portions, observed after stool, accompanied by painful burning sensations immediately after a bowel movement.
- Blood can appear with constipation. The human body is constructed in such a way that the grid of blood vessels is sufficiently densely developed inside the anus.
- Polyps. The volume of bleeding depends on the location and size of the polyp, and can be both weak and abundant.
- Proctitis Ulceration of the mucous membrane of the rectum, followed by inflammation. The blood is accompanied by mucus, mixed with feces.
- Gastritis of any nature. There is heavy bleeding. The chair is decorated.
- Gastric and duodenal ulcer. Accompanied by profuse bleeding simultaneously with the release of tarry stools (so-called mereny). The first sign of such a disease is vomiting of blood.
- Diverticulosis - the formation of a diverticulum (pockets and protrusions on the intestinal mucosa). When they are injured during a bowel movement, feces mixed with blood is secreted.
- Rectal cancer. Bleeding in this case is similar to bleeding from the rectum during the formation of polyps.
- Bleeding in people with HIV infection. The cause is not the disease itself, but a reduced immunity, contributing to the rapid progression of any of the diseases, including those with symptoms of bleeding from the anus.
- Varicose veins of the esophagus.
- Other systemic diseases.
In some cases, such a phenomenon as scarlet blood from the anus can be the result (side effect) of taking certain medications (antibiotics, drugs that contain potassium).
By the nature of the blood secreted, it is possible to judge about possible diseases in women and men:
- Cherry color of blood is characteristic of pathologies of the colon.
- Red rectal bleeding indicates the development of cancer, as well as the presence of polyps. The appearance of a polyp in the rectum is not an incurable disease, since polyps are referred to as benign tumors.
- Scarlet blood from the anus, which you found on underwear or when using toilet paper, may indicate an anal fissure or hemorrhoids.
- Dark blood clots from the anus indicate the presence of diseases such as diverticulosis and colon swelling.
- Black discharge and tarry stools are evidence of diseases of the stomach, small intestine, and duodenum.
Scarlet blood from the anus during bowel movements
Anal bleeding of varying intensity may indicate serious problems in the digestive system. The color of the liquid can be used to determine the section of the intestine that has been damaged.
Thus, the excreted scarlet blood from the anus without pain indicates a violation of the integrity of the tissues of the rectum, colon, or diseases of the anus. Most often it is hemorrhoids or anal fissure.
Hemorrhoids may be accompanied by the release of blood after bowel movements, as well as during stool. Bleeding manifests as blood drops on paper or on laundry. In this case, the blood will be scarlet.
Discharges usually appear after passing a solid or solid stool, sometimes occur after heavy exercise. With hemorrhoids, as well as with anal fissures, blood clots can remain on the feces. A characteristic symptom of hemorrhoids are red knotty formations falling out of the rectum, possibly with a bluish tinge.
The main drugs for the treatment of hemorrhoids are anti-varicose agents that normalize blood circulation and venous outflow from the pelvic organs. Representatives of this group of drugs are troxevasin, escuzane, reparil, tribenozide, anavenol, aspirin, detralex. However, the range of their use is limited to contraindications and side effects.
If conservative methods do not help, operative treatment of hemorrhoids is prescribed:
- Latex ligation: a ring is put on the leg of the extended hemorrhoid, resulting in impaired blood circulation and hemorrhoid tissues die off;
- Sclerotherapy: the doctor injects an agent into the extended hemorrhoid, which leads to the collapse of its walls, which allows to eliminate hemorrhoids of I-III degree;
- Hemorrhoidectomy: during the operation, the doctor removes the hemorrhoidal dilated vessels, after which the wound is usually sutured;
- Electrocoagulation: during anoscopy, the electrode coagulates the hemorrhoidal node, after which its tissues die and eventually disappear.
The delicate problem of anal fissure is mainly found in constipated people. Stool retention, hard stool combined with irritation of the anorectal area with soap and hygiene products is fraught with micro-breaks in the skin and mucous membranes.
As a result, every trip to the toilet turns into torture. Fearing defecation causes psychological constipation, the vicious circle closes. The main symptoms of anal fissure: blood in the stool and pronounced pain when emptying the bowel. The doctor makes a diagnosis after detecting a crack at the site of the transition from the rectal mucosa to the skin.
These are benign neoplasms that grow on the pedicle or are located on a broad base. For a long time, polyps do not manifest themselves in any way, less often patients have constipation or diarrhea associated with impaired intestinal motor activity.
The danger of the disease lies in the fact that polyps often degenerate into a cancerous tumor. The surface of the polyps can bleed, and the larger the formation, the easier it is to damage its surface.
Malignant intestinal tumors
A counterweight to polyps are malignant tumors. They can also bleed at any stage of their development. Most often, they initially make themselves felt, either by the appearance of blood from the anus or by intestinal obstruction. It is much easier to diagnose them if they are located in the rectum. Then, any doctor, having conducted her digital examination, will be able to detect the problem in time and refer the patient to treatment.
By themselves, bleeding from malignant intestinal tumors can manifest itself in different ways. Sometimes there is blood of bright color or mixed with feces after stool. As for the intensity of bleeding, it can also be different. If a tumor is bleeding that disintegrates, then there is very heavy bleeding, as large vessels are involved in the process.
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis
Characterized by lesions of the intestinal wall of the ulcerative nature due to autoimmune pathological processes in the body.
The resulting ulcerative defects of the intestinal wall lead to frequent bleeding, besides patients with intense pain in the abdomen, anorexia, increased body temperature. The nature of the stool in these diseases varies from melena (black stool) to heavy bleeding.
This is a protrusion of the intestinal wall through its outer layer. The disease can be complicated by bleeding, intestinal germination and peritonitis.
Signs of starting diverticulitis:
- pains in the abdomen, especially on the bottom left;
- bleeding from the anus;
- sometimes a rise in temperature.
The main thing in this case - to establish bowel emptying to prevent the emergence of new diverticula. And treatment depends on the severity and neglect of the disease. It can be carried out with the use of only drugs or surgical method with the removal of tissues affected by diverticula.
Acute intestinal infection
The disease is accompanied by severe bleeding from the anus, high fever, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, severe abdominal pain. An example of an acute intestinal infection is dysentery, salmonellosis, amebiasis.
What if there is blood from the anus?
If you find yourself bleeding from the anus, the treatment of such a problem should be started after establishing the cause, since this is just a symptom and not an independent disease.
Accordingly, in order to accurately determine the cause of bleeding from the anus, and reliably verify that they are not associated with cancer or other dangerous bowel disease, you should contact the proctologist for examination. He will tell you what to do, and what examinations should be taken to clarify the diagnosis.
Diagnosis and treatment
In proctology, various methods are used to help determine what caused the bleeding from the anus:
- The analysis of fecal masses, which allows to detect blood, even if it is invisible visually - is prescribed in cases where the doctor suspects a patient's disease, a symptom of which is rectal bleeding.
- Irrigoscopy - for its implementation, a special substance is introduced into the intestines, which is necessary to obtain a clear picture on X-rays.
- Gastroduodenoscopy - examination of the patient with the use of an endoscope, which allows to assess the condition of the mucous membrane of the digestive organs. Sometimes using this method is carried out and treatment - cauterization - ulcers.
- Rectoscopy - with its help the human digestive system is examined, and more specifically, its lower sections. With this method, doctors can detect hemorrhoids, anal fissures, various structures in the sigmoid and / or rectum.
- Colonoscopy - is nothing more than a more detailed rectoscopy. It is performed by endoscopic method and allows you to detect all the changes that have occurred in the structure of the colon.
The reasons for the release of blood from the anus in men and women can be very much. Only a specialist can install and remove them. And if after some time the discharge of blood during a bowel movement stops, it does not mean that the cause of its appearance has disappeared.
You need to take this problem very seriously, even if you are guessing what caused the disorder. There are a number of diseases that may cause blood after a bowel movement.