Rhinitis or runny nose is called the inflammatory process of the nasal cavity. Often, rhinitis is only a symptom of the disease. For example, a runny nose may appear during a viral infection and with a bacterial infection, and even be the result of mechanical irritation.
In addition, rhinitis is divided into acute and chronic. Its causes can be both viral, fungal, bacterial infections, and weakening of the immune system, and overcooling of the body in the cool season.
A very important role in the progress of the disease is played by lifestyle, predisposition to allergies and hereditary diseases. If time does not give importance to the treatment of rhinitis, then in the future the disease can lead to complications or the transition of the disease into a chronic form, for the treatment of which will take a long time.
In this article we look at the features of rhinitis in adults, its symptoms and topical methods of treatment at home.
Why rhinitis occurs, and what is it? The main cause of acute rhinitis is the result of a bacterial or viral infection penetrating the nasal mucosa. Also, rhinitis is a frequent companion of such serious infectious diseases as measles, diphtheria, scarlet fever and flu.The causes of noninfectious rhinitis etiology can be:
- Long stay in environmentally unfriendly conditions;
- Harmful working conditions;
- Endocrine diseases;
- Cysts, nasal polyps;
- Circulatory disorders (generalized or local);
- Diseases of the kidneys, liver, lungs;
- Heart defects, myocarditis;
- Mechanical burns of the nasal mucosa;
- Allergic reactions of the body (cold allergy, sensitization in response to the penetration of gases, vapors, pollen, animal hair, the general reaction of the body to the introduction of drugs or food);
- Other diseases of the oropharyngeal cavity and sinuses (sinusitis, adenoiditis, sinusitis, sinusitis, etc.).
Experts attribute the occurrence of allergic rhinitis primarily to the individual characteristics of the nasal mucosa in some people. In particular, with excessive sensitivity to various stimuli, the so-called. exogenous allergens. Also, the causes of allergic rhinitis include increased sensitization to viral and bacterial infections.
Symptoms of rhinitis
Depending on the type and stage of rhinitis, symptoms may range from dry irritation in the nasal cavity to serous and mucopurulent discharge with bloody inclusions. In chronic rhinitis, headache, drowsiness, fatigue, decreased quality of sleep, sometimes accompanied by snoring, are often observed.
The main symptoms of acute rhinitis in adults are:
- loss of ability to breathe freely through the nose;
- frequent sneezing;
- ear congestion;
- increased tearing;
- sensation of mucosal drying;
- formation of crusts in the nasal passages;
- pain in the head;
- nasal congestion;
- burning sensation, pronounced itching in the nasal passages;
- the appearance of clear nasal discharge with a mucous consistency (with purulent rhinitis, the discharge becomes thicker and becomes greenish);
- complete or partial loss of the ability to recognize odors;
- runoff mucous discharge on the posterior pharyngeal wall.
The symptoms of rhinitis should not be overlooked, no matter how insignificant they seem. Rhinitis, left untreated, can lead to serious complications such as sinusitis or sinusitis.
The chronic form of rhinitis in adults has the following manifestations.
- Catarrhal He is accompanied by congestive hyperemia of the mucous membranes, uniform swelling of the nasal conchae and periodic difficulty in nasal breathing, and a sense of smell.
- Atrophic. It appears as a result of atrophy of the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity, leading to various disturbances in the processes of air exchange and vascular function.
- Hypertrophic. It develops as a result of hypertrophy of the soft tissues of the nasal cavity and is accompanied by a violation of nasal breathing.
- Vasomotor. It is associated with diseases of the autonomic nervous system and, in addition to secretions of the mucous secretion, is also accompanied by alternate nasal congestion.
- Medication. They suffer from those patients who during the treatment of rhinitis received a kind of dependence on drugs (nasal sprays, for example).
- Allergic. Accompanied by an episodic violation of nasal breathing, sneezing, nasal mucous discharge; its nature is determined by immediate type allergic reactions. The disease may be seasonal or year-round.
In this regard, the symptoms of chronic rhinitis can vary significantly depending on the cause of the disease. For example, nasal congestion is not always accompanied by copious mucus secretion, as is the case with an acute rhinitis. Temperature increases in chronic forms also occur infrequently. At the same time deterioration of the general state of health can be pronounced. It is characterized by the following features:
- sleep disturbance;
- loss of appetite;
- decrease in working capacity;
- weakening odor sensitivity.
Therefore, the correct treatment of chronic rhinitis is no less important than acute, and it may also require a visit to a doctor.
Rhinitis is recognized on the basis of these symptoms, but in each case it is necessary to differentiate them from specific rhinitis, which are symptoms of an infectious disease - influenza, diphtheria, measles, whooping cough, scarlet fever, as well as gonorrhea, syphilis, etc. Each infectious disease has its own clinical picture .
An objective study of the ENT organs (rhinoscopy - examination of the nasal cavity), clarifies the shape of rhinitis. If you suspect the development of complications of rhinitis, an x-ray examination of the paranasal sinuses, lungs, middle ear is prescribed, consultation of a pulmonologist, allergist, oculist, infectious diseases specialist, instrumental examination of the ear, pharynx, larynx.
How to treat rhinitis?
Acute uncomplicated rhinitis is treated at home. Therapy is carried out depending on the stage of development of the inflammatory process. In the treatment of acute rhinitis in adults, both symptomatic agents and special medicines are used to reduce inflammation in the nasal cavity. With bacterial infections, the use of antiseptic agents is justified, with the help of which the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity is washed and cleaned.
If rhinitis is an independent disease, and is not a consequence of acute respiratory diseases, treatment is recommended to start with the following actions:
- washing the nasal cavity with an isotonic solution (1 hl. table salt, dissolved in 200 ml. of boiled water, cooled to room temperature);
- with nasal congestion, foot baths with mustard (2 tablespoons of mustard powder mixed with 3 liters of hot water) will bring relief.
Also, when rhinitis is recommended abundant warm drink (tea with lemon and raspberry, milk with honey). In cases of high temperature (above 38), antipyretic agents can be used. Although it must be borne in mind that antipyretic drugs, increasing sweating, can predispose to various kinds of complications and worsen the course of the disease, reducing the body's resistance to infectious aggression.
The most commonly used drugs for the treatment of rhinitis are time-tested drugs:
- Vasoconstrictor - symptomatic agents that reduce swelling of the mucous membrane and reduce nasal congestion. Naphthyzinum, Galazolin, Nazol, Xymelin, etc.) help to make breathing easier for the time being. Drugs of this kind are not recommended for longer than 7-10 days, as this may be the impetus for the development of vasomotor rhinitis.
- Moisturizing solutions and emollient ointment - Marimer, Physiomer, Aqua Maris, are used as an auxiliary treatment.
- Topical antihistamines (Claritin, Tavegil, Suprastin, Allergodil, etc.) block the production of specific antibodies that cause allergic reactions.
- Antibiotics - only with a bacterial cold and complications, usually in the form of a nasal spray or drops (Bioparox);
- Antiseptic preparations of local action (isotonic solution, furatsilin, etc.) are used as washing the nasal cavity.
- Vitamins and immunostimulants.
During the exacerbation of chronic rhinitis, the same medications are used as in acute rhinitis (vasoconstrictor drops, drops and ointments with drugs that have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial effects). Astringent drugs are used: 2-5% solution of protargol (colargol) in the form of drops in the nose (5 drops in each half of the nose 3 times a day).
Physiotherapy treatments that have shown their high efficacy and minimum percentage of contraindications for the treatment of this disease are as follows:
- electrophoresis with mineral applications (dirt, salt);
- breathing exercises.
Such treatment will speed up the healing process and reduce the rehabilitation period after rhinitis, complicated by concomitant diseases of the upper respiratory tract.
Preventive measures to prevent rhinitis include:
- Prevent the occurrence of colds.
- Timely treatment to the doctor, at the first signs of the disease will prevent the occurrence of possible complications, especially in infants.
- Meals should be complete, high-calorie, and most importantly be respected the correct mode. The diet should consist of the consumption of fruits and vegetables with a high content of vitamin C. It is recommended to drink tea with raspberries, rosehip infusion, milk with honey.
- Periodic wet cleaning and ventilation in the room will prevent the entry and spread of infection.
- It is not recommended to drastically move from a warm room to a cold one, not to be in drafts, not to use ice water and other soft drinks as a drink.
- Recommend to carry out tempering procedures. Dousing with cold water (start gradually, from the use of warm water to cool). Regular exercise.
In general, the prevention of rhinitis - a disease with a fairly wide "genealogical tree" - should be aimed primarily at enhancing the body's resistance.