Vasomotor rhinitis in adults - symptoms and treatment

Vasomotor rhinitis - a violation of breathing through the nose due to a narrowing of the nasal cavity, due to a violation of vascular tone in the mucous membrane. Allergic and neurovegetative form of vasomotor rhinitis is distinguished.

In this disease, the function of the vessels of the nasopharynx is impaired, and they, instead of absorbing mucus, emit an excess amount. In other words, the patient has a constant runny nose.

At the same time, the nasal canals do not perform an important function - cleaning the incoming air from harmful substances (dust, germs and allergens). The difficulty is also in the fact that the nasal canals are narrowed and little air enters the lungs, which further complicates the situation.

Most people decide to eliminate vasomotor rhinitis on their own, without the help of a doctor. To do this, they buy drops in the nose and think that the problem is solved. The opinion that rhinitis is an unserious ailment is erroneous, since inaction will not only aggravate the disease, but also cause serious complications. Even the manifestation of vasomotor rhinitis in a mild form can negatively affect the usual life.

Neurovegetative form

As a rule, seasonality is not typical for this form of vasomotor rhinitis. Vasomotor rhinitis is equally common at all times of the year and depends mainly on either external triggering factors (dustiness of the rooms, aggressive fumes in the inhaled air, the presence of contact curvatures of the nasal septum), or the general neurovegetative dysfunction mentioned earlier.

Usually in the latter case, patients are patients not only of the rhinologist, but also of the neurologist.

Vasomotor allergic rhinitis

Allergic vasomotor rhinitis occurs when the nasal mucosa comes into contact with various exogenous allergens. For the seasonal form of allergic vasomotor rhinitis is characterized by the presence of exacerbations during the flowering period of certain plant species.

Periods of exacerbation in a year-round form are observed regardless of the seasons and flowering periods, they are caused by an allergen, contact with which is possible throughout the year.

Characteristic manifestations of allergic vasomotor rhinitis are: the appearance of sudden abundant mucous discharge, itching and burning, feelings of congestion and headache. Also, there may be redness of the conjunctiva of the eyes, swelling of the eyelids. Quite often, the Eustachian tubes can be involved in the inflammatory process, which connect the nasal cavity with the ear, resulting in a feeling of ear congestion, the appearance of tinnitus and a decrease in hearing.

Causes

Why does vasomotor rhinitis arise, and what is it? The basis of the disease is the differentiation of the excitability of the central parts of the autonomic nervous system and the peripheral parts, due to which the reaction to the usual physiological stimuli of the nasal mucosa.

The response is manifested by hyperactivity of the vascular and neurovegetative nasal mucosa, which is manifested by the ability of the mucous membrane to respond to the effects of various nonspecific and specific stimuli in the form of an edematous-secretory reaction, which is not found in healthy individuals.

Among the most common causes of vasomotor rhinitis, emit:

  1. Allergic reaction, which is manifested in connection with the violation of hormonal levels, for example, during pregnancy, taking oral contraceptives, hormonal treatment and others;
  2. Abuse of vasoconstrictor drops;
  3. Sensitivity of the body to a sharp change in temperature (meteosensitivity);
  4. Stressful situations;
  5. Allergic rhinitis;
  6. Vegetative-vascular dystonia.

Risk factors include:

  1. Bad habits. Just look at the photo of the internal organs of the smoker to understand all the harm from smoking and alcohol;
  2. Dry air;
  3. Separate odors (for example, perfumes or tobacco);
  4. Asthma;
  5. Gastroesophageal reflux disease;
  6. Contaminated air;
  7. Damage to the nose;
  8. Spicy food;
  9. Stressful situations, strong emotional experiences.

Other causes may provoke the disease in adults, it is very important to diagnose the vasomotor form of rhinitis in time and to start a comprehensive treatment of the disease in a timely manner.

Symptoms of vasomotor rhinitis

In the case of vasomotor rhinitis in adults, the leading symptom is a violation of nasal breathing. This leads to deterioration of ventilation in the lungs, followed by improper blood circulation in the brain and cardiovascular system. In this regard, there are various disorders of the nervous system:

  • sleep disturbance;
  • headaches;
  • increased fatigue;
  • weakness;
  • lack of appetite;
  • memory impairment.

Also for vasomotor rhinitis in adults, there are other symptoms:

  • alternating congestion of one of the nostrils - this symptom is very significant;
  • the emergence of a feeling of congestion in the supine position on the side on which the person rests;
  • colorless, slimy and at the same time quite abundant nasal discharge;
  • there is often a sensation of a lump of mucus in the throat.

Vasomotor rhinitis symptoms are often similar to allergic rhinitis. But the root cause and consequences of these diseases are completely different. Therefore, when diagnosing it is necessary to conduct a series of tests:

  • allergic tests to identify the allergen, if any;
  • complete blood count, including for eosinophils and immunoglobulins E, which will show whether an allergic process is taking place;
  • x-ray of the nasal sinuses.

Also, the disease is characterized by the development of attacks of deterioration with periods of improvement in which the symptoms often persist, but not to the same extent as in the acute period.

Diagnostics

Basically, to establish the diagnosis and determine its type, analyzes such as a complete blood count and nasal discharge are used.

In these analyzes, the decisive factors for diagnosis are the presence of eosinophils (leukocyte cells, which increase their number mainly as a result of various allergic reactions - they indicate an allergic type of rhinitis). The presence of a chronic form of rhinitis will clarify the conduct of x-ray nose.

Treatment of vasomotor rhinitis

Given the similarity of vasomotor rhinitis with some atypical forms of allergic rhinitis, first of all, it is necessary to carry out a differential diagnosis in order to exclude the allergic nature of the disease and prevent unreasonable prescription of drugs. For this purpose, blood tests and nasal secretions, skin (scarification) tests with allergens are conducted.

A variety of forms of vasomotor rhinitis requires an individual approach to the method of treatment of each patient. The greatest effect is achieved if it is possible to identify and eliminate the factors causing the disease, but it is not always possible to establish the root cause or cure the underlying disease.

To reduce the attack of rhinitis help the following activities:

  1. Moderate physical exertion reduces the frequency of attacks, jogging, swimming, walking, playing sports strengthen the nervous system and have a positive effect on the state of the vessels.
  2. Treatment of diseases of the stomach. Vasomotor rhinitis often occurs with reflux, which is accompanied by a reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus and upper respiratory tract.
  3. At revealing of anomalies of development of the nasal passages surgical intervention will be required.
  4. Eliminate the influence of specific factors, such as tobacco smoke, odors from chemicals, certain foods.
  5. Contrast water shower. Alternately dousing the body with cold and hot water teaches the body to regulate vascular tone and has a positive effect on the state of the immune system.

Drug therapy is selected based on the symptoms of the disease, the presence of concomitant diseases and the age of the patient.

Operation

Surgical treatment of vasomotor rhinitis is the incomplete destruction of the mucous membrane of the lower part of the nasal conchae or injection of drugs - novocaine or hormonal agents. Removal of the edema-causing blood vessels is also performed.

There are the following methods of surgery:

  1. Radiofrequency ablation of the lower turbinates;
  2. Cryodestruction of the lower turbinates;
  3. Ultrasonic destruction of the lower turbinates.

All of these types of surgical procedures are aimed at partial destruction of blood vessels, reduction of chronic edema of the mucous membrane, an increase in the volume of nasal breathing. The minus of surgical treatment of vasomotor rhinitis is the scars remaining in the places of impact of the doctor’s instruments. Under some unfavorable circumstances, they also lead to nasal congestion.

Homeopathic methods

Homeopathy involves individual treatment regimens for each patient. To cure vasomotor rhinitis, the specialist first normalizes the work of the stomach, intestines, liver, nervous system.

As a result, fatigue, irritability disappear, sleep is normalized, immunity is strengthened. In short, homeopathy treats the disease by eliminating the causes that provoked the failure of the entire body. The following can be used from homeopathic remedies: ammonium, apis, hydrastis, sabadilla, sanguinaria, allium, flail, pulsatilla.

Nasal blockade

Often the patient is offered nasal blockade with the introduction of hydrocortisone into the mucous layer. This technique for a long time relieves congestion and eliminates puffiness, but due to possible addiction it is used in very rare cases.

How to treat folk remedies

Treatment of vasomotor rhinitis is aimed at normalizing the reflex activity of the nasal mucosa, reducing rhinorrhea episodes. Along with traditional medicine for the treatment of rhinitis at home, you can use the methods of traditional medicine.

  1. You need to make a qualitative salt solution. To do this, take 1 tsp. ordinary salt and a glass of warm water. Stir the salt in the water. Then we wash the nose with this solution.
  2. Fresh beets are rubbed and collected juice, which must be stored in the refrigerator. It is necessary to bury three times a day, two drops in the nostril. After instillation in the nose fit the tampons, also soaked in beet juice.
  3. Another remedy consists of calamus roots, elecampane, coltsfoot, marsh wild rosemary, violet and cytvary seed. Before preparing the infusion, it is recommended to grind these herbs, after which the spoon of this collection is poured with a glass of boiling water and left overnight. In the morning, the resulting infusion is carefully filtered, and then applied 2-3 tablespoons a day before meals.
  4. Honey will help strengthen the body's defenses. It is used as a means of washing the nose. You need to find high-quality honey, then dissolve 1 teaspoon in one glass of warm water. Stir thoroughly until honey is completely dissolved in water. This solution is necessary to wash the nose.
  5. Mix 2 tbsp. horsetail, 3 tbsp. dandelion root, 4 tbsp. Hypericum, 1 tbsp. corn stigmas and 5 tbsp. centaury. There also crushed hips. After that, one spoonful of the mixture is taken and brewed in a third liter of water. Broth defended 12 hours. Then boiled, cooled and filtered. Drink the third part of the glass three times a day. Store the broth should be in the refrigerator.
  6. Fir oil lubricate the region of the maxillary sinuses in parallel with the massage of the nose, the sinuses. A day is recommended to hold at least 3-4 such massages. The massage is carried out with the help of special taps with the tips of the fingers. It contributes to a better discharge of nasal mucus.

According to reviews, with vasomotor rhinitis, treatment with folk remedies shows good results, however, constant monitoring by a doctor is necessary.

Reviews

  • Veronica. A year and a half was tormented, there was always not enough air. The doctors wrote off everything on the IRR, advised to be less nervous and eat better :) It did not help ... As a result, I decided to take up this matter, read the information. As a result, an integrated approach helped: Nazorex - 1 p. per day, aminocaproic acid - 1 p. in the day and contrast washing. All this did weeks 3. It helped. Periodically there are aggravations that are not comparable in strength with what was before, that is, much weaker. In this case, drip nasorex.
  • Nastya. The doctor brought me to the operating room, gave me a white coat to put on my clothes. They put me on a regular chair and did a local anesthetic. Of course I didn’t feel my nose, but the most unpleasant thing was that everything in my throat was numb. After verifying that the anesthesia had worked, the doctor proceeded with the operation. The electrode was inserted into my nose for several seconds when it became hot for me to remove it. And so several times. There was no pain at all, everything is absolutely comfortable and not scary. There was no blood either. In total, this all took about a maximum of 20-30 minutes. Let me go home immediately after the procedure. The condition was terrible: weakness, in the nose and throat of mucus, it was difficult to breathe even with the mouth. It was simply impossible to taste or smell, and there was no appetite. On the next morning to the doctor on the toilet of the nose. In the morning it became a little easier. I arrived at the procedure for the opening of the hospital at 8 am I could not stand to wait any longer. The nurse cleaned my nose and I DID SHOCK !!!! A LITTLE, A LITTLE BUT On this day, I could already eat and sleep.
  • Angela I want to talk about my healing from vasomotor rhinitis. I was no longer able to breathe dependent on drops, the ENT gave direction to the operation, when the surgeon went to stand on the line I was advised - try not to drip, it can recover, I was very impressed with this advice, but not immediately, after a few days I decided try, it was just torture, to put it mildly, it was at the beginning of May 15, the operation was scheduled for 7,07,15, changes started gradually, I decided not to go for the operation, somewhere by the end of the summer my breathing really recovered, maybe someone then it will help, but be patient!

Complications

Since vasomotor rhinitis leads to a violation of nasal breathing, therefore, aeration of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is disturbed, which often leads to the occurrence of other ailments:

  1. Polyps - benign lesions on the inflamed mucosa. Usually they grow in the very top of the nasal cavity. As a result, the patient has to breathe through the mouth;
  2. Chronic sinusitis is an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses. With this disease, persistent pain in the face, forehead, and soft tissue edema is added to nasal discharge;
  3. Otitis is inflammation of the middle ear. Since the nose and the ears are interconnected by the Eustachian tube, there is a risk of fluid particles entering the middle ear cavity, which provokes the development of the inflammatory process;
  4. Sinusitis - the defeat of the maxillary sinuses. This is the most common form of sinusitis. It is characterized by ingestion of mucus in the accessory cavities, which promotes the growth of pathogenic microorganisms;
  5. Snoring, up to stops breathing.

Long-existing rhinitis significantly impairs hearing due to the connection of the nasopharynx with the middle ear.When the condition is significantly neglected, especially when attaching the bacterial flora, complete hearing loss is possible if pus enters the cavity of the inner ear or melts the eardrum, which is located on the border with the outer ear.

Total

As you can see, vasomotor rhinitis in adults is a rather complicated disease that requires a competent and integrated approach to treatment. Therefore, for any suspicion of such rhinitis should contact the experts. In this case, with proper diagnosis, effective treatment can be prescribed. It should be borne in mind that the treatment of this disease can be long and difficult.

Watch the video: ACAAI: New Method Tackles Nonallergic Rhinitis (January 2020).

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