Knee bursitis is a disease resulting from inflammation of the articular sac. Often, as a result of injury or heavy physical exertion, the synovial membrane of the knee joints begins to secrete an excessive amount of intraarticular fluid. This is a protective reaction of the body that helps relieve excessive tension from the joint and minimize the negative impact of the traumatic factor.
However, at some point the intra-articular fluid becomes so much that it is no longer processed by the body and begins to accumulate in the cavities of the synovial membrane, which leads to the knee bursitis, about the symptoms and treatment methods which we will discuss in this article.
Why does knee bursitis occur, and what is it? The causes of bursitis are not always identified. Very often it occurs completely unexpectedly and seemingly without a reason.
The development of the disease may be preceded by:
- Injuries and injuries of the knee joint (bruises, abrasions, small wounds).
- Stretching the joint due to its overload.
- A sharp increase in physical activity.
- Inflammation of the joints (arthritis, gout).
- Infectious lesions (infection with pyogenic microbes).
Depending on which bag is inflamed, these types of bursitis are distinguished:
- Patellar, or suprapatelar (prepatelary) bursitis is the most common type of disease when the patella bag becomes inflamed.
- Popliteal, or infrapatellar bursitis - inflammation of the popliteal synovial sac.
- Baker's cyst is a lesion of the synovial sac, which is located in the lower inner part of the knee joint.
- Serous bursitis - aseptic (without microbes) inflammation of the synovial sac. Developed due to injury or stretching.
- Purulent - when pathogens that cause the formation of pus enter the cavity of the bursa. As a rule, bacteria (mostly staphylococcus) penetrate into the synovial sac through wounds and cracks in the skin.
According to the type of flow, bursitis can be acute (suddenly arising, occurring very brightly and just as quickly ending) and chronic (current sluggish and long). Therefore, the symptoms and treatment of the disease will directly depend on the type and form of bursitis.
Symptoms of knee bursitis
Symptoms of knee bursitis are pronounced. It has certain characteristics:
- Inflammation and pain in the joints, which becomes especially noticeable when pressing on the area near the joint.
- Slight stiffness or reduced range of motion in the area of the affected joint.
- Redness or swelling over the affected joint.
- The appearance of weakness in the muscles.
- Weakness, malaise, reduced performance.
- Temperature increase (in the area of bursitis).
- Increased body temperature, especially in the case of infectious bursitis.
With prolonged mechanical irritation of the bursa, chronic knee bursitis may develop. In acute bursitis pathological changes will be expressed by a clear inflammation of the walls of the bursa.
Bursitis of the knee: photo
Looks like knee bursitis, we offer to view detailed photos.
In order to understand how to treat knee bursitis, a doctor must not only diagnose it, but also determine the cause of its development. One of the most important moments of diagnosis is the confirmation of the aseptic nature of inflammation, for which they carry out the puncture of the bag.
- If the result is a clear liquid, it can be concluded about aseptic inflammation.
- Receiving pus suggests that pathogens have become the cause of bursitis.
- Baker's cyst is also quite easily determined due to its characteristic location - in the popliteal fossa.
- In the case of the popliteal bursitis, instrumental methods are used - ultrasound, arthrography, and radiography of the knee joint.
In general, the diagnosis of this disease is not a problem - for an experienced specialist it is enough to conduct a general examination and a palpatory examination.
Knee Bursitis Treatment
In the event of the discovery of bursitis of the knee joint, therapeutic measures are aimed at eliminating the cause of inflammation and reducing its severity. This requires an integrated approach, which includes:
- Rest for the joint;
- Medication treatment;
- Physiotherapy procedures.
Specific methods of treating knee bursitis depend on the nature of the disease. In the aseptic form of inflammation of the synovial bursa, the therapy scheme usually includes:
- Providing a state of rest for the knee;
- Overlaying ice packs;
- Taking anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs;
- Muscle relaxants (diazepam, baclofen) - to relieve spasm of muscle tissue and blood vessels;
- Aspiration of synovial fluid. It is produced when a significant amount of fluid accumulates in the bursa.
In the case of septic (purulent) bursitis, antibiotics are primarily prescribed. Also shown is the removal of pus from the bursa by the method of aspiration, drainage of the articular sac.
At the moment there are a large number of anti-inflammatory ointments:
- voltaren emulsion;
Compresses are applied externally with dimexide and 0.5% novocaine solution, taken in proportions of 1: 3, respectively:
- the mixture is moistened with a gauze napkin and applied to the sore spot;
- From above impose a polyethylene film and warm with a scarf or towel.
The duration of the use of such a compress should not exceed 30 minutes, as you can get severe burns.
Folk ways to alleviate the condition
Over time, all popular methods have been tested for effectiveness. At home, you can use only the best of them:
- Compress of cabbage. It is used against joint inflammation and pain relief. Here it is simple - we remove the sheet, remove the rough streaks, soften it with a rolling pin until the juice appears and apply it to the place of inflammation smeared with honey. We wrap with a film and a scarf. In this case, the honey allows the cabbage juice to penetrate deeper and has antiseptic properties, and in combination with the cabbage well pulls the liquid with the infection. Compress keep 4-8 hours.
- Celery Tea This drink helps to strengthen the body and helps to fight the existing inflammation. For its preparation is taken 1 table. l celery seeds, filled with a glass of boiling water, infused for 1.5-2 hours and filtered. You need to drink twice a day for 2 weeks.
- Lotions with propolis. 10 g of propolis need to pour 100 ml of 40 percent vodka and insist this mixture for five days. Then make lotions on the problem area until the swelling subsides.
Also, if the disease is exacerbated, ice cubes, tightly fixed with a bandage, can be applied to the knee joint.
Bursitis surgery is rarely required and is prescribed as a last resort, when traditional medical therapy has failed.
Indications for surgery:
- purulent process;
- chronic course without effect from conservative therapy;
- fistulous form;
- injuries with penetration into the cavity of the bursa.
During surgery, the inflamed articular sac is removed, resulting in patient disability.
The rate of recovery of knee mobility is largely related to the efforts of the patient himself. In order to shorten the rehabilitation period, it is necessary to do physical exercises and play sports.
It is necessary to abandon classes, leading to the formation of microtraumas of the joint. At this stage, effective folk remedies: infusions and compresses that reduce puffiness.
Prevention of the disease consists in proper distribution of loads during work or training, preparation of the ligament apparatus for making an effort, ensuring safe conditions, excluding the possibility of injury.
Anyone who has suffered knee bursitis in any form should periodically use elastic patellae. They will provide support for the knee, and provide a compression effect, which will reduce the degree of stress on the knee joint.
If the skin is damaged, it is necessary to thoroughly treat it with an antiseptic, or apply an anti-bacterial ointment or patch. All occurrence of pyoderma, as well as any rash in the knee area should be subjected to timely treatment.