Modifications of the venous plexuses located around the rectum, with poor blood circulation, are called hemorrhoids. Overflowing with blood the veins expand and form nodes.
Hemorrhoids are often diagnosed during pregnancy, and the probability of its occurrence depends on the number of births.
Thus, in primiparous women, the disease occurs only in 20% of cases, and in multiparous cases, its frequency rises to 40-50%, especially in the third trimester.
During the period of childbirth and childbirth, hemorrhoids occur in hundreds of thousands of women, causing them great trouble. Some women, experiencing false shame in front of a doctor, hope that the illness will pass by itself, that nothing needs to be done, but this often only aggravates their condition.
As a result, hemorrhoids are formed that interfere with normal vital activity, impair mobility and performance, and have a negative effect on the psycho-emotional state of the young mother.
Usually, the provocateurs of the disease are such factors:
- Stagnation of venous blood in the small pelvis - a consequence of the pressure of the venous vessels of the growing uterus, which causes the expansion of the cavernous bodies and the development of hemorrhoids.
- Chronic constipation. When a woman has chronic constipation, stretching increases and tension on the rectal wall increases during bowel movements. And this in itself leads to the formation of hemorrhoids in the intestine. Firstly, a person in the toilet strains during constipation, overstressing hemorrhoidal veins, and secondly, during constipation, the chair becomes very hard and begins to simply irritate swollen veins. The frequency of constipation in pregnant women is significantly higher, which is mainly due to a decrease in intestinal tone during pregnancy.
- Sedentary lifestyle of a pregnant woman in the later stages - leads to venous congestion in the veins.
- During pregnancy, tastes may vary. Excessive absorption of salty, spicy and smoked irritates intestinal epithelium. This provokes the formation of hemorrhoids.
It is necessary to take into account these facts and lead a normal way of life, without abusing culinary whims.
Types of hemorrhoids
There are several clinical types of development of hemorrhoids, the manifestations of which have certain differences:
- Acute - characterized by a rapid increase in clinical manifestations in the form of pain and itching in the rectal area. Most often develops in the second trimester of pregnancy or after childbirth.
- Chronic. This type is most common, since the disease of hemorrhoids is rather a pathology of the large intestine veins. Various medications help relieve inflammation, improve stool, but cannot cure and relieve the disease completely. With a certain kind of action hemorrhoids will resume.
- Complicated - more severe course of the pathological process, which is accompanied by the presence of cracks in the rectal mucosa, their infection with bacteria with the development of paraproctitis (purulent inflammation), damage to the walls of hemorrhoids with possible bleeding from them.
In addition, the disease manifests itself in two forms, depending on the location of the nodes:
- Internal, having a difficult diagnosis due to unexpressed symptoms. When it is, the folds of the intestines are located and cause discomfort only during bowel movements. This form is often chronic and may be accompanied by thrombosis and other dangerous phenomena.
- External or external, accompanied by the appearance of cones, bleeding and increased pain. The lumps themselves, when the external form of hemorrhoids is rarely damaged, may not cause pain during bowel movement. In patients with this form, thrombophlebitis is practically not observed.
Identify hemorrhoids doctor, as a rule, is not difficult. Specific complaints allow you to quickly make a diagnosis. Finger study is required. Sometimes to clarify the diagnosis it is possible to conduct sigmoidoscopy - a study in which a special optical device is inserted into the rectum. It allows you to see what is happening in the rectum.
Signs of hemorrhoids during pregnancy differ little from the symptoms of hemorrhoids as an independent disease.
In total there are three stages of hemorrhoids. In the first of these, hemorrhoids only sag in the lumen of the rectum, but do not leave the opening of the anus.
Later, during the second stage, hemorrhoids are already sagging from the anus, but quite easily erect back after a while. But in the third stage of the disease, the nodes no longer set in the rectum and remain outside the anus.
In acute cases, a woman may notice the following symptoms:
- Unpleasant sensations or even pain in the anus.
- Painful sensations during the campaign "in a big way".
- Sensation of incomplete bowel movements during bowel movements.
- Sensation of increased humidity in the anus.
- An increase in hemorrhoids and dropping them out.
- Mucous and bloody discharge from the anus.
- Itching and irritation of the skin around the anus.
The initial stage of hemorrhoids is usually not noticed by women, and when the problem becomes tangible, the treatment of hemorrhoids becomes more difficult. Therefore, all expectant mothers are advised to undergo examination by a proctologist even at an early stage of pregnancy in order to rule out a disease or cure it at an early stage.
Adhere to certain preventive measures to minimize the occurrence of this unpleasant disease.
- Get rid of constipation. In order to avoid problems with stools, the diet should regularly include vegetables and fruits, dairy products, vegetable oil.
- After each stool wash the crotch with cool water. You can use a decoction of chamomile or calendula, because they have anti-inflammatory action.
- Remove from the diet spices, smoked, pickled and salted foods. Emphasis should be placed on vegetables and fruits, which are easier to digest and stimulate the contractile function of the intestine. It is good to eat buckwheat and oatmeal porridge, whole-grain bread.
- Move regardless of gestational age. Ideally, every morning should start with charging. Good daily walks.
In general, the prevention of hemorrhoids should be dealt with every pregnant woman, then, most likely, and treatment will not come.
How to treat hemorrhoids during pregnancy
Hemorrhoids develop slowly. But the "farther he went," the harder it is to get rid of him during pregnancy.
If in the initial stages it can be treated only by adjusting the diet and observing a special hygienic regime, then, as for the later stages of the disease, then a combined drug treatment of hemorrhoids is already required, and in severe cases surgery may be required.
- The first thing that needs special attention is the diet of a pregnant woman. Nutrition should be such as to exclude the possible development of constipation, since the main guarantee of successful treatment of hemorrhoids is timely bowel emptying. This factor must be considered when composing the menu.
- Another important point that requires close attention is the rules of personal hygiene. Doctors advise expectant mothers to abandon the use of ordinary toilet paper and purchase special wet wipes at the pharmacy.
In official medicine, combined ointments, creams, rectal suppositories are used to treat hemorrhoids, they act in several directions at once and have:
- pain medication;
- laxative effect.
Drugs are selected in each individual case, taking into account the complexity of the course of the disease and the site of inflammation of hemorrhoids. Moreover, drugs can and should be prescribed only by a doctor! During pregnancy, this is doubly important.
See also: how to treat hemorrhoids after birth at home.
Candles for hemorrhoids during pregnancy
It is important to understand that any drugs, including candles for hemorrhoids during pregnancy should be used with caution. The fact is that these drugs often have a number of contraindications and side effects.
Candles have two directions of action:
- Painkillers They also relieve and inflammation in the rectal area. This group includes a large number of drugs, but during pregnancy only a few of them can be used. The drug should not contain analgesics that are harmful to the child.
- Hemostatic. Such drugs are very relevant for women during pregnancy. Excessive blood loss should not be allowed, as this may have a disastrous effect on the child. For the treatment of anal fissure cracks candles with sea buckthorn oil are well suited.
Before using any candles or ointments, you must have the approval of the doctor leading your pregnancy.
Removal of hemorrhoids
Non-surgical removal of hemorrhoids does not pose a great risk to a pregnant woman, all procedures are performed under local anesthesia. In some cases, removal of hemorrhoids is the only way to get rid of the problem, preventing its development in more severe stages.
Today, doctors have the opportunity to carry out the so-called small or bloodless operations:
- Sclerotherapy is carried out in case of a high risk of bleeding at any stage of the disease. With this procedure, the flow of blood to the hemorrhoidal unit is stopped, as a result of which it dies.
- Ligation of hemorrhoids is performed only at stages 1 and 2 of the disease. The essence of the procedure is to overtighten the base of the node using a latex ring. Within about a week after the procedure, the node dies off, it is disconnected from the wall of the rectum.
- Infrared photocoagulation and laser coagulation (laser exposure or high temperature on the base of the hemorrhoid in 3 - 5 points, at which a burn occurs, causing necrosis of the node with its subsequent fall off within 7-10 days).
If a woman’s condition allows you to avoid surgery during pregnancy, the doctor may decide to postpone the surgery.