Urethritis is an inflammatory process that occurs in the walls of the urethra.
Directly urethritis (as an independent disease) is more common in males. Women, along with inflammation of the urethra, also acquire inflammation of the bladder.
As soon as you suspect urethritis symptoms, do not hesitate to consult a doctor. This disease can be caused by bacteria and viruses, the activity of which can later lead to complications.
Most often, the disease occurs against the background of other diseases of the urinary system or pelvic organs, moreover, due to the structural features of the female urinary system, cystitis often develops almost simultaneously with urethritis. Therefore, every woman should know the symptoms and treatment of this disease.
What it is? The causes of urethritis include bacteria, fungi, and in some cases, viruses such as herpes simplex virus. Although usually only the urethra is affected by a disease, in some cases the vagina, fallopian tubes, uterus and ovaries may also be affected. E.Coli, which causes urinary tract infections, can also cause urethritis.
Here are some situations or diseases that can cause this disease in women:
- Gonorrhea: "Neisseria gonorrhoeae" organisms that cause gonorrhea can move up the female urethra during sex with an infected partner.
- Chlamydia and herpes simplex are also common sexually transmitted diseases that can lead to this ailment.
- Poor hygiene: poor vaginal hygiene can also cause problems. However, you should refrain from using strongly smelling soaps and perfumes in this area.
Forms of the disease
Depending on the cause, urethritis in women is divided into infectious and non-infectious. Infectious urethritis, in turn, is of several types:
- non-specific - most often caused by E. coli, streptococci or staphylococci and proceeds as a classic purulent inflammation;
- specific - is one of the symptoms of sexually transmitted diseases (mycoplasmosis, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, gonorrhea, candidiasis);
- viral - caused by herpes simplex virus or human papillomavirus (HPV).
The duration of the course of urethritis in women is divided into acute and chronic.
Signs of Urethritis
The first signs of urethritis in women include:
- Discharge from the urethra (the nature of the discharge depends on the pathogen, most often there is a greenish or white-yellow or bloody discharge with an unpleasant smell).
- Abdominal pain - it is constant, of weak intensity.
- Burning (itching) in the urethra, redness of the urethra orifice.
Most often, the symptoms of urethritis in women appear a few hours or days after intercourse.
Symptoms of urethritis in women
In acute urethritis, burning symptoms, pain and itching at the beginning of urination are characteristic symptoms in women. In some cases, there may be purulent discharge from the opening of the urethra.
In the future, pain and swelling become less pronounced, and discharge may stop. Urine is usually transparent with single purulent filaments.
In most cases, the acute form of urethritis is accompanied by frequent uncontrollable urge to urinate, as well as noticeable pain at the end of it.
Common symptoms of urethritis in women:
- In acute urethritis, both in men and women, there is an increase in body temperature, a decrease in appetite, and weakness.
- Subacute is characterized by a decrease in swelling and pain, discharge becomes less abundant or completely stop. From the urethra in the morning can stand out crusts.
- If there is a trichomonas urethritis in women, the symptoms develop a few weeks after infection, with about a third of cases of the disease occur without specific manifestations. For the disease are characterized by: itching and burning sensation in the urethra, as well as in the area of the external genital organs. Chronitization of trichomonas urethritis leads to the disappearance of symptoms.
- With insufficiently effective treatment, urethritis can provoke chronic development: complaints are usually associated with neurotic phenomena. Most often these are small compartments from the urethra, which increase under the influence of provoking factors: alcohol consumption, hypothermia, sexual arousal. Symptoms of chronic urethritis, often resemble clinical manifestations of torpid urethritis.
- Candida urethritis develops against the background of thrush with lesions of the urethra by yeast fungi. It is accompanied by mild symptoms: slight curd discharge, discomfort in the lower abdomen, itching in the urethra.
If the urethritis in women is not cured in a timely manner or the treatment has been prescribed incorrectly, then the disease can become chronic, in which case it will be much more difficult to treat the illness.
He is accompanied by periodic cramps in the process of urination and sharp pain in the lower abdomen, which occurs from time to time. Acute symptoms of inflammation of the urethra in women go away for 2-2.5 weeks. This does not mean that the disease has disappeared. On the contrary, this is a reason for going to a specialist to start treatment, until the pathogens penetrated during the “dormant” stage much deeper.
The causes of this type of disease are most often local and general hypothermia, excessive drinking and frequent sexual intercourse.
If the patient goes to a doctor late and becomes unwell in a chronic form, complications of urethritis occur. The most serious complication is the condition in which the urethra (urethra) bakes and hurts, the inability to eliminate pain by any means.
Another disease of the urethra in women can give complications to the bladder and kidneys: provoke cystitis or pyelonephritis, transform into purulent urethritis in women. When the form is running, a cyst of the urethra may form, its narrowing or restriction of the urethra.
Treatment of urethritis in women
In the case of uncomplicated urethritis, the treatment does not require hospitalization and occurs at home. A woman must clearly follow the doctor's prescription and periodically visit the clinic to monitor the progress of therapy.
Depending on the symptoms of urethritis, treatment is prescribed appropriate, it will depend on the pathogen.
During the period of therapy should:
- avoid hypothermia;
- refrain from sexual intercourse (even with a condom) until full recovery;
- strictly follow the rules of individual hygiene.
In most cases, the treatment of urethritis in women is limited to the course of antibiotics, they are actively fighting with the causative agent of the disease, which was found during planting.
How to treat utretrit in women can be divided into 3 main points:
- The use of integrated actions aimed at restoring the properties of the walls of the urethra. Of particular importance, this action takes on the diagnosis of complex forms of the disease, when the inflammation is not directly related to the infection.
- Restoration of the vaginal microflora. Urethritis will return again and again until the infection of the urethra with certain microorganisms from the vagina stops. It is possible to interrupt this vicious circle in one way - to populate the vagina with microorganisms that should be there. This action is selected individually for each patient.
- Work on the restoration of the immune system. With long-term treatment and inflammation of the urethra, often suffers from the immune system, as the whole organism, and the walls of the urethra. As in the last paragraph, an individual course of recovery of the immune system is prescribed. Therefore, weak immunomodulators without additional actions and drugs will not give anything.
Drug therapy depends on the form of urethritis diagnosed:
|Non-specific urethritis||Broad-spectrum antibiotics are shown: cephalosporins (cefazolin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone); sulfonamides (sulfazole, urosulfan); macrolides (azithromycin, clarithromycin); fluoroquinolones (clinafloxacin).|
|Gonococcal||Antibiotics are prescribed: erythromycin, spectinomycin, oletetrin, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, rifampicin, cefacor, and others. those that are detrimental to chlamydia. But in each case, the drug is selected individually.|
|Trichomonas||The doctor may prescribe: the antimicrobial drug metronidazole (Trichopol), as well as the drugs of choice - benzidamine, imrazol, ornidazole, chlorhexidine, and iodovidone suppositories.|
|Candidiasis||It requires the use of antifungal drugs: levorin, nystatin, natamycin, amphoglucamine, clotrimazole.|
|Mycoplasma||It is treated with antibiotics from the tetracycline group (doxycycline, tetracycline).|
|Chlamydia||Antibiotics from the tetracycline group (tetracycline, doxycycline), erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, clinafloxacin have been well established.|
|Viral||Antiviral treatment is often indicated - ganciclovir, acyclovir, ribavirin, famciclovir, penciclovir, etc.|
At the end of this course of treatment in most cases, all the symptoms and painful sensations disappear, but there are also rare cases when conventional treatment does not help. This usually happens with advanced forms of urethritis, when the infection is gone and the symptoms remain.
A diet must become an indispensable component of treatment - salty and spicy foods, marinades and smoked foods are excluded from the diet, plentiful drinking and adherence to the milk-vegetable diet during the acute stage (exacerbation of chronic inflammation) is shown.
During this period, it is important to reduce physical exertion, eliminate alcoholic beverages, smoking and hypothermia, and limit sexual contact.
Now a few words about how to treat urethritis in women, and which drugs are considered the most effective in combating this unpleasant disease. In the treatment of inflammatory lesions of the urethra, the following groups of medicines are used:
- Antibiotics are an indispensable tool to help fight infection. Their reception is possible only after a series of tests that determine the sensitivity of the infection to certain antibiotic drugs. Taking a common antibiotic without prior determination of the pathogen, in some cases, the effect of treatment you may not achieve.
- Special antiseptic sedentary baths, which additionally help to neutralize the infection.
- Physiotherapy, involving the use of electrophoresis for the disease zones, heating applications.
- Tampons treated with medicinal ointments that are inserted into the vagina.
- All sorts of agents that stimulate and support the immune system - immunomodulators, immunostimulants.
- The vitamin complex also helps the body cope with urethritis.
Together with medical treatment, physiotherapeutic procedures are prescribed (vaginal electrophoresis or on the pubic area with Furadonin solution, diadynamic therapy of the lumbosacral area). To enhance the immunity used immunomodulators, multivitamins.
Prevention of urethritis in women includes the following activities:
- hormone replacement therapy for menopausal disorders;
- avoidance of physical and mental stress;
- close personal hygiene;
- hypothermia avoidance;
- prevention of abortion;
- regular sex life with a regular partner, the rejection of casual sex;
- preventive examinations at the gynecologist at least 2 times a year (more often according to indications).
With timely detection and active treatment of urethritis in women usually ends with recovery. The transition of the disease to the chronic form may be accompanied by the development of complications, which worsens the prognosis.