Conjunctivitis is one of the most common eye diseases. It is difficult to find a person who at least once in his life would not appear characteristic symptoms: redness and irritation of the eyes, tearing ...
Therefore, there is a perception that conjunctivitis is a non-serious disease, well, the eye reddened, itching to it - tomorrow it will pass by itself ... It is not so! Treat conjunctivitis is a must, seriously and professionally.
In most cases, the disease is caused by a bacterial and viral infection, an allergic reaction, but there are other factors.
Depending on the cause of the disease, conjunctivitis is:
- Bacterial - often cause streptococci, pneumococci, staphylococci, gonococci, chlamydia and diphtheria bacteria;
- Viral - always accompanied by colds that were caused by adenoviruses. Also often observed conjunctivitis caused by the herpes virus;
- Allergic - occurs in response to the action of the allergen (dust, wool, pollen, etc.), can also accompany hay fever, allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, and others;
- Other types arise from the action of chemicals (chemicals, varnishes, paints, industrial fumes, etc.).
Depending on which pathogen caused conjunctivitis, the symptoms and methods of treatment will vary.
Signs of conjunctivitis
The main signs of conjunctivitis are:
- redness of the conjunctiva of the eye;
- burning and irritation;
- detachable tissue mucopurulent;
- clumping eyelids (especially after sleep);
- eyelids swollen and covered with a crust.
In general, conjunctivitis is manifested by swelling of the eyelids and conjunctiva, redness of the white of the eye, photophobia, lacrimation. A number of symptoms may indicate the cause of the disease.
With conjunctivitis, the symptoms will depend on the form of the disease.
- Acute - begins suddenly with a cut or pain, first on one, then on the other eye. Against the background of the expressed reddening point hemorrhages are quite often observed. Appears mucous, mucopurulent or purulent discharge. This form may be accompanied by general malaise, fever and headache. Its duration ranges from 5-6 days to 2-3 weeks.
- Chronic form is accompanied by a sensation of burning, itching, sand in the eyes, fatigue of the organ of vision.
- If it is caused by a bacterial infection, the presence of crusts on the eyelids and abundant discharge from the eyes, which from time to time may acquire a greenish tint, is noted. The inflammatory process can spread to both eyes.
- In the case of viral conjunctivitis, it is likely that there will be swelling and thickening of the eyelids, tearing of the eyes with a small amount of discharge. In many cases, the process has a one-way flow.
- If the cause is an allergy, then it is accompanied by itching, redness of the eyes and tearing. It is likely that along with this there will be congestion and itching in the nose, there will be a discharge from the nasal passages.
- Toxic - caused by toxic substances. This type of disease causes irritation and pain in the eyes, especially when the eye moves up or down. Itching and discharge are usually not.
- Bilentral - is characterized by serous-bloody discharge, which in 3-4 days becomes purulent, sometimes corneal ulcers and infiltrates are formed.
- Koch-Wicks' conjunctivitis develops as a large number of small hemorrhages in the conjunctiva, edema appears, which looks like the elevations within the palpebral fissure, having the shape of triangles.
There are common symptoms of conjunctivitis (see photo), which are not specific and manifest with any pathogen: redness and swelling of the eyelids, itching, burning, photophobia, the presence of discharge from the palpebral fissure (by its nature, it is possible to assume the pathogen), foreign body sensation after the eyelid .
To quickly cure conjunctivitis it is necessary at the first signs of the disease to seek qualified help.
In order to determine how to treat conjunctivitis, it is necessary to identify the root cause of the disease.
To remove purulent contents, you should regularly wash the eyeballs with 2% boric acid composition, as well as with weak solutions of furatsilina and potassium permanganate. Between washes, it is recommended to drip antiseptic eye drops into the cavity of the conjunctiva (Albucidus 20%).
The main treatment for conjunctivitis is prescribed by an ophthalmologist, it will depend on the cause of the disease.
- With bacterial conjunctivitis, antibiotics are prescribed for the treatment in the form of drops (0.25% solution of chloramphenicol, sodium sulfacyl). In the presence of an abundant discharge, the conjunctival sac is washed with furatsilin solutions (1: 5,000), potassium permanganate (1: 5,000), and 1% otetrinum ointment is placed into it (2-3 times a day with a severe process, 1 time with easy).
- In the treatment of viral conjunctivitis, human leukocyte interferon or interferonogens (pyrogenal, poludan) are prescribed as infusions into the conjunctival sac 6-8 times per day, as well as 0.5% florenal, 0.05% bonafton and other eye ointments.
- In identifying chlamydial conjunctivitis, in addition to local treatment, systemic administration of doxycycline, tetracycline, or erythromycin is indicated.
- In the treatment of fungal conjunctivitis locally in infusions, depending on the type of fungus, nystatin, levorin, amphotericin B, etc. are prescribed.
- Therapy of allergic conjunctivitis includes the appointment of vasoconstrictor and antihistamine drops, corticosteroids, tear substitutes, taking desensitizing drugs. When conjunctivitis of fungal etiology, antimycotic ointments and instillations are prescribed (levorin, nystatin, amphotericin B, etc.).
- In the syndrome of "dry eye" (occurs as a secondary post-infection lesion of either the lacrimal apparatus, or the goblet cells producing mucus, or the defeat of the meibomian glands that prevent tear evaporation), artificial tear preparations (Oxial) are used.
An ophthalmologist will tell you in more detail how to treat conjunctivitis at home based on your experience.
Eye drops from conjunctivitis - the main tool in the treatment of eye diseases, including all types of conjunctivitis. For the treatment of conjunctivitis in adults also use antibacterial drugs, it depends on the cause of the disease.
- In the bacterial form, such drops as Floxal, Ciprofloxacin, etc. are used. To enhance the effect, tetracycline ointment can be applied over the eyelids. In most cases, the use of these drugs is enough to quickly cure conjunctivitis at home.
- When allergic nature used antihistamine drops (Opatanol, Lecrolin, etc.), as well as hormonal drops and ointments (Hydrocortisone eye ointment, Dexamethasone).
- If the cause of the disease was a virus - prescribe drugs containing interferon (Ophthalmoferon, Poludan). Often the infection is mixed or the causative agent of the disease cannot be precisely determined during the examination, in this case, a complex of drops is prescribed.
As already mentioned, the nature of the disease (viral, bacterial or allergic) can only be determined by an ophthalmologist during an internal examination.
Self-treatment with folk remedies can lead to the development of complications or the transition of the disease to the chronic form, since they are not able to cope with the infection.