Candidiasis is a disease of the mucous membranes, skin, internal organs, caused by yeast-like fungi of the genus Candida.
These fungi are often present inside the human body (in 30% of people) in small quantities, for example, in the mouth, vagina and intestines, without causing any problems.
The term “candidiasis” implies a pathological process, the basis of which is the overgrowth of Candida primarily in the gastrointestinal tract and, secondarily, in other areas. The disease is caused not only by the presence of Candida fungi, but by their reproduction in large numbers. The most common thrush of the oral cavity and urinary organs. In newborns, the most common fungal infection of the mucous membrane of the cheeks, tongue, and pharynx.
Unlike classical STIs, candidiasis cannot be 100% attributed to diseases with sexual transmission, although Candida fungi can be transmitted from sexual partners. In 75% of cases, candidiasis and its first symptoms appear as a consequence of antibacterial treatment previously conducted. To surely cure candidiasis, you should consult about the doctor, he will prescribe the necessary drugs.
Causes of candidiasis
The causative agent of candidiasis is a yeast-like fungus of the Candida albicans species: unicellular microorganisms of relatively large size, oval, round, and sometimes oval-elongated.
The structure of the cell wall provides the fungus with good protection from exposure to adverse environmental factors, including drugs.
A healthy immune system and normal microflora of the intestine and vagina inhibit the growth of Candida albicans, and usually women and men do not have any unpleasant symptoms associated with its presence in the body. They become active when the body's resistance decreases.
The main factors contributing to the occurrence of thrush are:
- long or frequent antibiotic therapy;
- diabetes and other endocrine disorders;
- hormonal changes during menstruation and pregnancy
- weakening of general immunity;
- too much douching;
- severe infections;
- regular contraceptive use;
- wearing wet clothes, visiting the pool or swimming in open water.
The source of infection with candidiasis, as a rule, is the body’s own flora (autoinfection), but infection from the outside can occur. Attaching to the epithelial cells, the pathogenic fungus begins to parasitize them, penetrating deep into the tissues.
Newborns born to thrush of sick mothers can get thrush as a result of infection during the prenatal period or passing through the birth canal.
Symptoms of candidiasis
Symptomatic picture of this disease depends on the localization of the pathological process.
Candidiasis and its symptoms can occur in the following forms: smooth skin and its appendages, oral mucosa, urogenital, visceral, chronic generalized candidiasis.
In women, the disease usually affects the vagina and external genital organs, in men, the glans penis and the foreskin.
The main symptoms in women:
- burning and itching of the vulva;
- white cheesy vaginal discharge;
- pain during intercourse.
The most common symptoms in men:
- itching and soreness in the glans penis;
- swelling of the foreskin, glans;
- pain when urinating;
- pain during intercourse.
Symptoms of candidiasis in men also include redness of the glans penis and the appearance of foci with a whitish-gray patina on it.
In newborns, the pathogen affects the oral cavity, whitish spots appear on the cheeks, gums, tongue, which can grow, and they are painful. A newborn who suffers from thrush is restless, often screaming, sucks poorly and may refuse breastfeeding. To clarify or refute the diagnosis carried out appropriate laboratory studies.
Fundamentals of treatment of candidiasis
With timely treatment to a qualified doctor and the implementation of the recommendations of physicians, this disease is quite innocuous and can be quickly cured.
The treatment regimen for candidiasis in women and men includes general and local measures. The main goal in this case is to keep the pathogen under control so that it does not multiply very much, since it is impossible to completely get rid of the fungus.
Treatment of the disease is aimed at eliminating the factors contributing to the occurrence of candidiasis. For these purposes, there are special antifungal drugs - antimycotics.
There are many names for commercial preparations for the treatment of candidiasis. Some of them are used topically (cream, vaginal tablets or suppositories), others - inside (tablets or capsules for oral administration).Oral candidiasis
Treatment of candidiasis in men
For urogenital candidiasis in men, treatment is mostly local, using clotrimazole-based ointments. These are such drugs:
These drugs are applied with a thin layer on the glans penis and foreskin 2 times / day for 5-7 days. A single dose of fluconazole, 150 mg orally, is possible, but usually it is not necessary.
Treatment of candidiasis in women
In case of mild candidiasis in women, treatment is also local. In this case, the patient is prescribed vaginal suppositories or tablets of the combined antifungal action based on Clotrimazole, Isoconazole, Miconazole, etc.
Popular drugs that are prescribed to women, in parentheses indicate the main active ingredient:
- Antifungol, Yenamazol 100, Candibene (clotrimazole);
- Ovulum gyno-travogen (isoconazole);
- Ginesol 7, Gyno-dactarin, Klion-D 100 (miconazole);
- Polygynax, Terzhinan (nystatin);
Treatment of acute thrush is carried out from 1 day to a week, depending on the prescribed drug, it is important to bring the started therapy to the end. With more intense symptoms of candidiasis in women, antibiotic therapy is also prescribed.
Treatment of chronic thrush can last for several months. It should include the treatment of associated diseases. During pregnancy, therapy is exclusively local, due to the high risk of penetration of the active ingredients of the drug through the placental barrier.
The standard diet for candidiasis should be high in protein with a restriction of food rich in simple carbohydrates, with the exception of sweets. In addition, it does not prevent the inclusion in the diet of foods rich in vitamins C, PP and B, fruits, dairy products and vegetables.
When treating a disease in one of the sexual partners, it is desirable to treat the other partner regardless of whether he has signs of the disease. If candidiasis repeats frequently (2-3 times a year), be sure to discuss possible options for getting rid of the ailment with your doctor.
Keeping the body dry and airing reduces the likelihood of rapid reproduction of Candida albicans.
Timely and proper treatment of chronic diseases, STIs, hormonal disorders, intimate hygiene, wearing cotton underwear - all this will help you avoid unpleasant symptoms, and look for an answer to the question - how to treat candidiasis.
The measures for the prevention of illness include the periodic intake of vitamin-mineral, immunostimulating drugs. Avoid large amounts of sugar in food, as well as excessive use of alcohol and coffee. Women should not abuse the douching, as this violates the natural microflora of the vagina.