Bronchial asthma - symptoms and treatment, signs in adults

Bronchial asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases among the population of the entire planet. Asthma is treated or not open question. Even if we consider that at the moment it is diagnosed in its early stages and current treatment methods are used.

What is asthma? This is a constantly present inflammatory disease of the airways, which is always accompanied by hyperreactivity of the bronchi.

The main symptoms of asthma are choking or respiratory discomfort in the form of paroxysmal cough and / or wheezing and shortness of breath. Due to excessive mucus production, inflammatory edema and spasm, the wall of the bronchus thickens, its lumen narrows. Through such a narrowed bronchus, there is not enough gas exchange with the environment, which leads to the characteristic symptoms of asthma.

More than 250 million adults and children on our planet suffer from bronchial asthma, and every year their number increases. The disease can be exacerbated and is fatal. In industrialized countries, the incidence is significantly higher than in underdeveloped countries.

The illness usually begins at an early age. About 50% of children, with proper treatment, get rid of asthma by adulthood. Understanding how to treat asthma, will allow you with the help of your doctor to confidently deal with its symptoms daily.

Causes of asthma

What it is? The reasons for which an adult or child has a disease of bronchial asthma, are not fully understood. The basis of the development of allergic asthma is the pathogenetic mechanism of immediate-type hypersensitivity (IgE-dependent immune response). In most cases, the disease develops due to the hypersensitivity of the body to external stimuli. The cause of asthma in children over 3 years old is, in most cases, an inhaled allergen.

Currently, the chronic inflammatory nature of this disease has been proven, as a result of which the secretion of mucus in the airways is increased, the production of a number of biologically active substances is disturbed. Another important reason - frequent infections and inflammation of the respiratory organs, developing under the influence of viruses, bacteria, etc.

About 1/3 of the sick children have asthma of hereditary origin. The emergence of allergic forms provoke various allergens - house dust, pollen, bacteria, viruses, fungi. Often, patients are diagnosed with allergies to several different allergens.

Forms and degrees

Asthma is divided into forms depending on the cause of occurrence, as well as the degree, depending on the clinical symptoms.

  1. Allergic - its occurrence is associated with an established allergen;
  2. Non-allergic - associated with non-allergic factors, such as hormonal changes;
  3. Mixed (combines the features of the above two forms).

Depending on the severity of the course, bronchial asthma is divided into three degrees:

  1. Mild - symptoms of exacerbation of the disease occur about once or twice a month and disappear quickly, often without treatment;
  2. Medium (exacerbation mainly at night, attacks no more than five times a year, accompanied by mild symptoms);
  3. Severe illness involves immediate emergency measures. Frequent exacerbation of the disease, the constant presence of symptoms, the performance is severely limited, sleep disturbances, significant impaired respiratory function according to spirometry.

Depending on the extent of the disease, the symptoms of the disease and methods of treatment will vary.

Symptoms of bronchial asthma

For the clinical picture of bronchial asthma, symptoms such as dyspnea and cough are characteristic. These symptoms in adults and children occur after contact with the allergen.

In the overwhelming majority of cases, a person takes a specific position during an attack, as if facilitating a painful inhalation and especially exhalation.

An asthma attack begins with a feeling of shortness of breath and a dry, painful cough, breathing becomes buzzing, exhalation is delayed. Whistles may increase with deep breathing. A frequent symptom is paroxysmal cough, usually dry or with a small clot of light sputum at the end of the attack.

Under the action of drugs attack is reversible. Light forms can be held independently. In the absence of treatment, the seizures become frequent and prolonged. Long-term neglect of pathology causes irreversible asthma.

The main signs of asthma in adults and children:

  • severe shortness of breath;
  • chest tightness;
  • asthma attacks - a feeling that you do not have enough air;
  • very frequent cough, which is especially strong at night;
  • many asthmatics have wheezing;

Most patients experience the first symptoms of asthma at an early age: about half of patients under the age of 10 years and about a third to 40 years. It is worth noting that not all people equally manifest bronchial asthma - the symptoms and treatment of pathology are directly dependent on the reasons that provoke the appearance of the disease.

Treatment of bronchial asthma

Currently, the treatment of patients with bronchial asthma includes planned treatment in the acute phase, emergency treatment aimed at stopping the attack, as well as treatment in the remission phase.

Drug treatment of bronchial asthma includes the use of drugs such groups:

  • glucocorticosteroids in inhalation form;
  • Cromons (Intal, Tayled);
  • leukotriene-type receptor antagonists (Accolate, Singular);
  • xanthines (aminophylline);
  • monoclonal antibodies ("Xolar") .;
  • adrenomimetics.
  • also expectorant drugs that improve sputum discharge and other aids are also used.

As treatment, drugs of basic therapy are used, affecting the mechanism of the disease, by means of which adults control the disease, as well as symptomatic drugs that affect only the smooth muscles of the bronchial tree and relieve an attack of asphyxiation.

Diet for asthma involves the exclusion from the diet of foods that can provoke an allergic reaction, focus on the use of fresh vegetables, meat, fish and dairy products (if there is no allergy).

During an asthma attack, follow a predetermined plan of action. To relieve an attack, it is necessary to take a bronchospasmolytic drug with an inhaler and provide fresh air to the lungs. If the inhalation has not worked and the attack has not passed - it is necessary to urgently call the ambulance team.

At the moment, medicine has taken a step forward in the principles and methods of treatment of bronchial asthma, which in time may help to cure asthma forever.

How to treat bronchial asthma folk remedies

It is impossible to completely cure such a complex disease as bronchial asthma, but to weaken the attacks, to make them shorter, is quite within the power of every sufferer. It should be remembered that folk remedies can be a danger to health, so before you apply them in practice, it is recommended to get medical advice.

  1. Grind ginger root to get about 400 grams of the finished powder, it should be insisted 2 weeks on 1 liter of alcohol, shaking occasionally. Strain the resulting tincture, and take 2 times a day for a teaspoon.
  2. Grind the propolis and pour it with alcohol in a ratio of 1: 4. Let it brew for 7 days, not forgetting to mix 1 time per day. Filter the mixture, and after a day they begin to take 10 drops 3 times a day, 30 minutes before a meal. Course: 2 months of admission, 1 rest, then repeat.
  3. Chopped grass is needed hyssop, it should be poured into a thermos and pour boiling water. Per liter of water take 4 tbsp. spoons of hyssop. After an hour you can drink, pre-strain. Take the dining room before bedtime, and in the morning 30 minutes before the first meal. The course is 10 days, then it is carried out again.
  4. Take a jar, which is worth putting 250 grams of aloe, then add 500 grams of wine and 350 grams of honey. Stir and brew for 9-10 days in the refrigerator. After the resulting tincture should be filtered, and squeeze the leaves. The first 3 days to take a tablespoon 3 times a day, then reduce the dose to a teaspoon. An important point - aloe leaves can not be watered for 14 days, before pruning, then just wipe off the dust, not washing under the tap.

Such methods can be effective in relation to the main manifestations of the disease, but alternative medicine also does not provide an answer to the question of how to cure asthma completely.

Asthma prevention

Disease prevention should begin in early childhood. If family members have a predisposition to the occurrence of allergies, the prevention of bronchial asthma is simply necessary. With an existing problem, it is necessary to adequately treat and eliminate allergens, which helps stabilize the course of the disease and reduce the risk of exacerbations.

Watch the video: Diagnosing Asthma: Mild, Moderate, and Severe (January 2020).

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